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      Valorización de lías de vino como ingredientes antihipertensivos

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      BIO Web of Conferences
      EDP Sciences

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          Resumen

          Algunos coproductos vitivinícolas se han utilizado para obtener extractos enriquecidos en (poli)fenoles con efectos antihipertensivos. Sin embargo, aún se desconoce si las lías de vino (LV) contienen compuestos antihipertensivos. Este estudio se centró en estudiar si las LV podría ser fuente de estos compuestos. Se evaluó la actividad antihipertensiva de cinco LV (fracción líquida, 5 mL/kg) en ratas hipertensas (SHR). Una de las LV mostró un fuerte efecto antihipertensivo, que se asoció con su alto contenido en flavanoles y antocianinas. La reducción del estrés oxidativo y mejora del estado redox y disfunción endotelial fueron algunos mecanismos involucrados en su bioactividad. Además, las LV se sometieron a extracción asistida por enzimas (Flavourzyme®), lo cual solubilizó compuestos fenólicos (57.20%) inicialmente no solubles. Ácido gálico, catequina y malvidina-3-glucósido fueron los principales (poli)fenoles de este hidrolizado. Además, el hidrolizado mostró una mayor actividad inhibitoria de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, antioxidante y antihipertensiva que las LV. Los péptidos FKTTDQQTRTTVA, NPKLVTIV, TVTNPARIA, LDSPSEGRAPG y LDSPSEGRAPGAD, identificados en el hidrolizado, exhibieron actividad antihipertensiva en SHR (10 mg/kg). LV son una buena fuente de compuestos antihipertensivos con potencial para usarse como nutracéuticos o ingredientes funcionales. Esto permitiría la valorización de las mismas y contribuiría a la economía circular de la industria vitivinícola.

          Abstract

          Some winery by-products have been used to obtain phenolic-enriched extracts with antihypertensive effects. However, the presence of antihypertensive compounds in wine lees (WL) remains unexplored. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate whether WL could be a source of antihypertensive compounds. The blood pressure-lowering effect of the liquid fraction of five WL was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after acute administration (5 mL/kg). One of the tested WL exhibited potent antihypertensive effects, which were associated with their high content of flavanols and anthocyanins. Their bioactivity was mediated by a reduction in oxidative stress and an improvement in the redox state and endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, WL were subjected to enzyme-assisted extraction (Flavourzyme®), which released non-soluble (poly)phenols (57.20%). Gallic acid, catechin, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds in this hydrolysate. Moreover, it showed greater angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and antihypertensive activities than the one shown by WL. Additionally, the peptides FKTTDQQTRTTVA, NPKLVTIV, TVTNPARIA, LDSPSEGRAPG, and LDSPSEGRAPGAD identified in the hydrolysate exhibited antihypertensive activity in SHR (10 mg/kg). Thus, WL is a good source of antihypertensive compounds with the potential to be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. This would allow WL valorization and contribute to circular economy in wineries.

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          Most cited references66

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          As new drugs are developed, it is essential to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another. A misunderstanding appears to exist regarding the appropriate method for allometric dose translations, especially when starting new animal or clinical studies. The need for education regarding appropriate translation is evident from the media response regarding some recent studies where authors have shown that resveratrol, a compound found in grapes and red wine, improves the health and life span of mice. Immediately after the online publication of these papers, the scientific community and popular press voiced concerns regarding the relevance of the dose of resveratrol used by the authors. The animal dose should not be extrapolated to a human equivalent dose (HED) by a simple conversion based on body weight, as was reported. For the more appropriate conversion of drug doses from animal studies to human studies, we suggest using the body surface area (BSA) normalization method. BSA correlates well across several mammalian species with several parameters of biology, including oxygen utilization, caloric expenditure, basal metabolism, blood volume, circulating plasma proteins, and renal function. We advocate the use of BSA as a factor when converting a dose for translation from animals to humans, especially for phase I and phase II clinical trials.
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            Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function.

            Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known, is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). They all utilize l-arginine and molecular oxygen as substrates and require the cofactors reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)). All NOS bind calmodulin and contain haem. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, NOS I) is constitutively expressed in central and peripheral neurons and some other cell types. Its functions include synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS), central regulation of blood pressure, smooth muscle relaxation, and vasodilatation via peripheral nitrergic nerves. Nitrergic nerves are of particular importance in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum and penile erection. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) require at least a residual nNOS activity for their action. Inducible NOS (NOS II) can be expressed in many cell types in response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, or other agents. Inducible NOS generates large amounts of NO that have cytostatic effects on parasitic target cells. Inducible NOS contributes to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and septic shock. Endothelial NOS (eNOS, NOS III) is mostly expressed in endothelial cells. It keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other vasoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Many cardiovascular risk factors lead to oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature. Pharmacologically, vascular oxidative stress can be reduced and eNOS functionality restored with renin- and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, with angiotensin receptor blockers, and with statins.
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              Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

              Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BIO Web of Conferences
                BIO Web Conf.
                EDP Sciences
                2117-4458
                2023
                December 06 2023
                2023
                : 68
                : 04004
                Article
                10.1051/bioconf/20236804004
                d2db98aa-c420-4bd1-893d-4ace390f2f82
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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