Only pyrethroid insecticides have so far been recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets for malaria control. Increasing resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids threatens to reduce the potency of this important method of vector control. Among the strategies proposed for resistance management is to use a pyrethroid and a non-pyrethroid insecticide in combination on the same mosquito net, either separately or as a mixture. Mixtures are particularly promising if there is potentiation between the two insecticides as this would make it possible to lower the dosage of each, as has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions for a mixture of bifenthrin (pyrethroid) and carbosulfan (carbamate). The effect of these types of treatment were compared in experimental huts on wild populations of Anopheles gambiae Giles and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say, both of which are multi-resistant. Four treatments were evaluated in experimental huts over six months: the recommended dosage of 50 mg m(-2) bifenthrin, 300 mg m(-2) carbosulfan, a mosaic of 300 mg m(-2) carbosulfan on the ceiling and 50 mg m(-2) bifenthrin on the sides, and a mixture of 6.25 mg m(-2) carbosulfan and 25 mg m(-2) bifenthrin. The mixture and mosaic treatments did not differ significantly in effectiveness from carbosulfan and bifenthrin alone against anophelines in terms of deterrency, induced exophily, blood feeding inhibition and overall mortality, but were more effective than in earlier tests with deltamethrin. These results are considered encouraging, as the combination of different classes of insecticides might be a potential tool for resistance management. The mixture might have an advantage in terms of lower cost and toxicity.