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      CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVE COMMUTING TO SCHOOL Translated title: FATORES DE RISCO CARDIOMETABÓLICOS ASSOCIADOS AO DESLOCAMENTO ATIVO À ESCOLA

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          ABSTRACT

          Objective:

          To verify if there is an association between cardiometabolic risk factors and active daily commuting to school among children and adolescents.

          Methods:

          A total of 1,743 schoolchildren aged 7 to 17 years old were evaluated in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS). The way of commuting to school was investigated with a questionnaire, and the cardiometabolic risk factors analyzed were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and fractions, LDL and HDL.

          Results:

          The prevalence of active commuting among schoolchildren was 48.0% (95%CI 45.7-50.4), and it was associated, in the crude analysis, with blood glucose and LDL cholesterol levels. Passive schoolchildren had a 1.1 higher prevalence ratio of high glucose and LDL cholesterol levels. However, when sociodemographic variables were included in the model, these associations were not maintained.

          Conclusions:

          The prevalence of active commuting in the sample studied is low and it was shown to have a crude association with glucose and LDL cholesterol levels in students. However, sociodemographic factors seem to influence these associations.

          RESUMO

          Objetivo:

          Verificar se existe associação entre fatores de risco cardiometabólicos e deslocamento ativo à escola em crianças e adolescentes.

          Métodos:

          Foram avaliados 1.743 escolares, de sete a 17 anos, do município de Santa Cruz do Sul (RS). A forma de deslocamento até a escola foi investigada por meio de questionário e os fatores de risco cardiometabólicos analisados foram: o índice de massa corpórea (IMC), a circunferência da cintura (CC), a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e a diastólica (PAD), glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total (CT), LDL e HDL.

          Resultados:

          A prevalência de deslocamento ativo entre os escolares foi de 48,0% (IC95% 45,7-50,4) e associou-se, na análise bruta, com os níveis de glicose e colesterol LDL. Escolares que se deslocavam de forma passiva apresentaram uma razão de prevalência (RP) 1,1 vez maior de glicose e colesterol LDL elevados. No entanto, ao serem incluídas variáveis sociodemográficas no modelo, essas associações não se mantiveram.

          Conclusões:

          Conclui-se que a prevalência de deslocamento ativo na amostra estudada é baixa e que o deslocamento ativo à escola apresentou associação bruta com os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e de colesterol LDL dos escolares, sendo que se deslocar de forma ativa parece auxiliar na redução desses níveis. Porém, fatores sociodemográficos parecem exercer influência sobre estas associações.

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          Most cited references 23

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          VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão

          (2010)
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            Active commuting and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analytic review.

            Leisure time physical activity is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, although evidence for the protective effects of active commuting is more limited. The present review examines evidence from prospective epidemiological studies of commuting activity and cardiovascular risk. Meta-analytic procedures were performed to examine the association between commuting physical activity and cardiovascular risk. Several cardiovascular endpoints were examined including mortality, incident coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension and diabetes. We included eight studies in the overall analysis (173,146 participants) that yielded 15 separate risk ratios (RR). The overall meta-analysis demonstrated a robust protective effect of active commuting on cardiovascular outcomes (integrated RR=0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.98, p=0.016). However, the protective effects of active commuting were more robust among women (0.87, 0.77-0.98, p=0.02) than in men (0.91, 0.80-1.04, p=0.17). Active commuting that incorporates walking and cycling was associated with an overall 11% reduction in cardiovascular risk, which was more robust among women. Future studies should investigate the reasons for possible gender effects and also examine the importance of commuting activity intensity.
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              Active commuting and cardiovascular disease risk: the CARDIA study.

              There is little research on the association of lifestyle exercise, such as active commuting (walking or biking to work), with obesity, fitness, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional study included 2364 participants enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who worked outside the home during year 20 of the study (2005-2006). Associations between walking or biking to work (self-reported time, distance, and mode of commuting) with body weight (measured height and weight); obesity (body mass index [BMI], calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, >or= 30); fitness (symptom-limited exercise stress testing); objective moderate-vigorous physical activity (accelerometry); CVD risk factors (blood pressure [oscillometric systolic and diastolic]); and serum measures (fasting measures of lipid, glucose, and insulin levels) were separately assessed by sex-stratified multivariable linear (or logistic) regression modeling. A total of 16.7% of participants used any means of active commuting to work. Controlling for age, race, income, education, smoking, examination center, and physical activity index excluding walking, men with any active commuting (vs none) had reduced likelihood of obesity (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.76), reduced CVD risk: ratio of geometric mean triglyceride levels (trig(active))/(trig(nonactive)) = 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98); ratio of geometric mean fasting insulin (FI(active))/(FI(nonactive)) = 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93); difference in mean diastolic blood pressure (millimeters of mercury) (DBP(active)) - (DBP(nonactive)) = -1.67 (95% CI, -3.20 to -0.15); and higher fitness: mean difference in treadmill test duration (in seconds) in men (TT(active)) - (TT(nonactive)) = 50.0 (95% CI, 31.45 to 68.59) and women (TT(active)) - (TT(nonactive)) = 28.77 (95% CI, 11.61 to 45.92). Active commuting was positively associated with fitness in men and women and inversely associated with BMI, obesity, triglyceride levels, blood pressure, and insulin level in men. Active commuting should be investigated as a modality for maintaining or improving health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Paul Pediatr
                Rev Paul Pediatr
                rpp
                Revista Paulista de Pediatria
                Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
                0103-0582
                1984-0462
                25 February 2019
                Apr-Jun 2019
                : 37
                : 2
                : 181-187
                Affiliations
                [a ]Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: debora.tornquist@ 123456bol.com.br (D. Tornquist).

                Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests.

                Article
                10.1590/1984-0462/;2019;37;2;00007
                6651315
                30810693

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 29
                Categories
                Original Article

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