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      Automated Ventricular System Segmentation in Paediatric Patients Treated for Hydrocephalus Using Deep Learning Methods

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          Abstract

          Hydrocephalus is a common neurological condition that can have traumatic ramifications and can be lethal without treatment. Nowadays, during therapy radiologists have to spend a vast amount of time assessing the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by manual segmentation on Computed Tomography (CT) images. Further, some of the segmentations are prone to radiologist bias and high intraobserver variability. To improve this, researchers are exploring methods to automate the process, which would enable faster and more unbiased results. In this study, we propose the application of U-Net convolutional neural network in order to automatically segment CT brain scans for location of CSF. U-Net is a neural network that has proven to be successful for various interdisciplinary segmentation tasks. We optimised training using state of the art methods, including “1cycle” learning rate policy, transfer learning, generalized dice loss function, mixed float precision, self-attention, and data augmentation. Even though the study was performed using a limited amount of data (80 CT images), our experiment has shown near human-level performance. We managed to achieve a 0.917 mean dice score with 0.0352 standard deviation on cross validation across the training data and a 0.9506 mean dice score on a separate test set. To our knowledge, these results are better than any known method for CSF segmentation in hydrocephalic patients, and thus, it is promising for potential practical applications.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A combined deep-learning and deformable-model approach to fully automatic segmentation of the left ventricle in cardiac MRI.

          Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is an essential step for calculation of clinical indices such as ventricular volume and ejection fraction. In this work, we employ deep learning algorithms combined with deformable models to develop and evaluate a fully automatic LV segmentation tool from short-axis cardiac MRI datasets. The method employs deep learning algorithms to learn the segmentation task from the ground true data. Convolutional networks are employed to automatically detect the LV chamber in MRI dataset. Stacked autoencoders are used to infer the LV shape. The inferred shape is incorporated into deformable models to improve the accuracy and robustness of the segmentation. We validated our method using 45 cardiac MR datasets from the MICCAI 2009 LV segmentation challenge and showed that it outperforms the state-of-the art methods. Excellent agreement with the ground truth was achieved. Validation metrics, percentage of good contours, Dice metric, average perpendicular distance and conformity, were computed as 96.69%, 0.94, 1.81 mm and 0.86, versus those of 79.2-95.62%, 0.87-0.9, 1.76-2.97 mm and 0.67-0.78, obtained by other methods, respectively.
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            Automatic whole brain MRI segmentation of the developing neonatal brain.

            Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly being used to assess brain growth and development in infants. Such studies are often based on quantitative analysis of anatomical segmentations of brain MR images. However, the large changes in brain shape and appearance associated with development, the lower signal to noise ratio and partial volume effects in the neonatal brain present challenges for automatic segmentation of neonatal MR imaging data. In this study, we propose a framework for accurate intensity-based segmentation of the developing neonatal brain, from the early preterm period to term-equivalent age, into 50 brain regions. We present a novel segmentation algorithm that models the intensities across the whole brain by introducing a structural hierarchy and anatomical constraints. The proposed method is compared to standard atlas-based techniques and improves label overlaps with respect to manual reference segmentations. We demonstrate that the proposed technique achieves highly accurate results and is very robust across a wide range of gestational ages, from 24 weeks gestational age to term-equivalent age.
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              U-net: Convolutional networks for biomedical image segmentation

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2019
                7 July 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Department of Radiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
                2Fast-Radiology, Poland
                3Practice, Poland
                4Department of Paediatric Radiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Jiang Du

                Article
                10.1155/2019/3059170
                6642766
                Copyright © 2019 Michał Klimont et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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