Fabio Sonvico 1 , 2 , * , Adryana Clementino 1 , 2 , Francesca Buttini 1 , 2 , Gaia Colombo 3 , Silvia Pescina 2 , Silvia Stanisçuaski Guterres 4 , 5 , Adriana Raffin Pohlmann 4 , 5 , Sara Nicoli 1 , 2
15 March 2018
nose-to-brain delivery, nanoparticles, pharmaceutical nanotechnology, mucoadhesion, mucus-penetrating particles, targeting, CNS disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease
In the field of nasal drug delivery, nose-to-brain delivery is among the most fascinating applications, directly targeting the central nervous system, bypassing the blood brain barrier. Its benefits include dose lowering and direct brain distribution of potent drugs, ultimately reducing systemic side effects. Recently, nasal administration of insulin showed promising results in clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Nanomedicines could further contribute to making nose-to-brain delivery a reality. While not disregarding the need for devices enabling a formulation deposition in the nose’s upper part, surface modification of nanomedicines appears the key strategy to optimize drug delivery from the nasal cavity to the brain. In this review, nanomedicine delivery based on particle engineering exploiting surface electrostatic charges, mucoadhesive polymers, or chemical moieties targeting the nasal epithelium will be discussed and critically evaluated in relation to nose-to-brain delivery.