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      In vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel TRPA1 antagonist and proof of mechanism in a human dental pulp model

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          AZ465 is a novel selective transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1) antagonist identified during a focused drug discovery effort. In vitro, AZ465 fully inhibits activation by zinc, O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS), or cinnamaldehyde of the human TRPA1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Our data using patch-clamp recordings and mouse/human TRPA1 chimeras suggest that AZ465 binds reversibly in the pore region of the human TRPA1 channel. Finally, in an ex vivo model measuring TRPA1 agonist-stimulated release of neuropeptides from human dental pulp biopsies, AZD465 was able to block 50%–60% of CS-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release, confirming that AZ465 inhibits the native human TRPA1 channel in neuronal tissue.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

          Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.
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            ANKTM1, a TRP-like channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, is activated by cold temperatures.

            Mammals detect temperature with specialized neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Four TRPV-class channels have been implicated in sensing heat, and one TRPM-class channel in sensing cold. The combined range of temperatures that activate these channels covers a majority of the relevant physiological spectrum sensed by most mammals, with a significant gap in the noxious cold range. Here, we describe the characterization of ANKTM1, a cold-activated channel with a lower activation temperature compared to the cold and menthol receptor, TRPM8. ANKTM1 is a distant family member of TRP channels with very little amino acid similarity to TRPM8. It is found in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it is coexpressed with TRPV1/VR1 (the capsaicin/heat receptor) but not TRPM8. Consistent with the expression of ANKTM1, we identify noxious cold-sensitive sensory neurons that also respond to capsaicin but not to menthol.
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              Distinct expression of TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1 mRNAs in rat primary afferent neurons with adelta/c-fibers and colocalization with trk receptors.

              The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels contains four temperature-sensitive channels, named TRPV1-4, that are activated by heat stimuli from warm to that in the noxious range. Recently, two other members of this superfamily, TRPA1 and TRPM8, have been cloned and characterized as possible candidates for cold transducers in primary afferent neurons. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we characterized the precise distribution of TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1 mRNAs in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. In the DRG, TRPM8 mRNA was not expressed in the TRPV1-expressing neuronal population, whereas TRPA1 mRNA was only seen in some neurons in this population. Both A-fiber and C-fiber neurons expressed TRPM8, whereas TRPV1 was almost exclusively seen in C-fiber neurons. All TRPM8-expressing neurons also expressed TrkA, whereas the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was independent of TrkA expression. None of these three TRP channels were coexpressed with TrkB or TrkC. The TRPM8-expressing neurons were more abundant in the TG compared with the DRG, especially in the mandibular nerve region innervating the tongue. Our data suggest heterogeneity of TRPM8 and TRPA1 expression by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons, which may result in the difference of cold-sensitive primary afferent neurons in sensitivity to chemicals such as menthol and capsaicin and nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                30 January 2013
                : 6
                : 59-70
                [1 ]Neuroscience, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden
                [2 ]Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Karolinska Institute/Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden
                [3 ]Clinical TA NS Early Development, Södertälje, Sweden
                [4 ]Medicinal Chemistry, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eva Nyman, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden, Tel +46 707203254, Email eva_nyman@ 123456telia.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2013 Nyman et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research


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