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      Elevated exhaustion levels and reduced functional diversity of T cells in peripheral blood may predict severe progression in COVID-19 patients

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          The novel contagious primary atypical pneumonia epidemic, which broke out in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is now formally called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the causative virus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 1,2 Recent studies have shown that in addition to dyspnea, hypoxemia, and acute respiratory distress, lymphopenia, and cytokine release syndrome are also important clinical features in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. 3 This suggests that homeostasis of the immune system plays an important role in the development of COVID-19 pneumonia. To provide direct evidence on leukocyte homeostasis, we studied the immunological characteristics of peripheral blood leukocytes from 16 patients admitted to the Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Infectious Diseases, Kunming, China. Among them, 10 were mild cases, 6 were severe cases; 7 were ≥50 years old, 11 were younger; and 6 had baseline diabetes, hypertension, or coronary atherosclerosis (Supplementary Table S1). Similar to the healthy group (n = 6), the absolute numbers of cells of major leukocyte subsets in peripheral blood remained at a normal level in both mild and severe patients. Different from that reported by Chen et al., 4 we did not observe increased neutrophils or decreased lymphocytes. Instead, we found that the severe group had a significant reduction in granulocytes compared to the mild group (Fig. 1a). It has been reported that elevated inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in fatal pneumonia caused by pathogenic human coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome). 5 We therefore examined whether inflammatory mediators can impact progression in COVID-19 patients. However, no statistical differences in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plasma concentrations were found among the three groups. Although patients had higher sCD14 levels than healthy people, there were no significant differences between the severe and mild groups (Fig. 1b). Fig. 1 COVID-19 patients, especially those with severe infection, showed increased levels of regulatory molecules and decreased levels of multiple cytokines in peripheral blood T cells. a Heat maps comparing peripheral blood leukocyte subset concentrations in healthy (n = 6), mild (n = 10), and severe (n = 6) patients. Rainbow-colored squares represent mean values of each group. Red-black-green squares represent log 10 P values, and white asterisk indicates P ≤ 0.05 by post hoc ANOVA test. H, healthy; M, mild; S, severe. b Comparisons of IL-6, TNF-α, and sCD14 plasma concentrations in healthy, mild, and severe groups. n.s., P > 0.05, *, P ≤ 0.05, by Kruskal–Wallis test. c Comparisons of expression levels of activation-, regulation-, and function-related molecules in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells among groups. Rainbow-colored squares represent mean positive cell rate for each group. d Comparisons of cell expression modules of exhaustion-related (CTLA-4, PD-1, and TIGIT) and function-related (IFN-γ, TNFα, and IL-2) molecules in CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among groups. “Single” indicates that cell only expresses one of the three molecules, “Multi” indicates that cell expresses at least two of the three molecules, “Non” indicates that cell expresses none of the three molecules. Red-yellow-blue squares indicate average cell expression rates of different modules of three groups, respectively. e Correlation network analysis of markers with significant differences among groups. Nodes are colored based on cell type for three groups. Node size indicates relative strength value according to centrality analysis. Thicker lines indicate more correlated genes. Green lines represent significantly positive Spearman’s correlation coefficients ≥0.40; red lines represent significantly negative Spearman’s correlation coefficients ≤−0.40. f Hierarchical clustering of participants based on all immunological risk indicators Virus-induced inflammatory factor storms can cause a systemic T cell response, reflected as changes in the differentiation and activity of T cells. 6 Here, as significant differences in virus-induced inflammatory cytokines were not detected, we next examined whether homeostasis was perturbed in T cells at the cellular level (Supplementary Table S2, Supplementary Fig. S1). As shown in Fig. 1c, the proportions of multiple molecules related to T cell activation and regulation increased significantly in patients compared to healthy controls, but several functional molecules showed a marked decrease. Among the differentially expressed functional molecules, the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and TNF-α in CD4+ T cells were lower in the severe group than in the mild group, whereas the levels of granzyme B and perforin in CD8+ T cells were higher in the severe group than in the mild group. The activation molecules showed no differences in CD4+ T cells, whereas the levels of HLA-DR and TIGIT in CD8+ T cells were higher in the severe group than in the mild group (Fig. 1c). These data indicate that COVID-19, similar to some chronic infections, damages the function of CD4+ T cells and promotes excessive activation and possibly subsequent exhaustion of CD8+ T cells. Together, these perturbations of T cell subsets may eventually diminish host antiviral immunity. 7 Usually a single molecule does not adequately predict disease progression. We therefore further performed cluster analysis on marker expression using data obtained from flow cytometry. Our results showed significant differences among the three subject groups in the level of exhaustion modules, including PD-1, CTLA-4, and TIGIT, and functional modules, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 (Supplementary Figs. S2, 3). Compared with the healthy control and mild group, the frequency of multi-functional CD4+ T cells (positive for at least two cytokines) decreased significantly in the severe group, whereas the proportion of non-functional (IFN-γ−TNF-α−IL-2−) subsets increased significantly. Studies have shown that multi-functional T cells can better control human immunodeficiency virus in natural infection and are correlated with better outcomes during vaccination; thus, the functional damage of CD4+ T cells may have predisposed COVID-19 patients to severe disease. 8 Li et al. 9 showed that these multi-functional CD4+ T cells occur more frequently in patients with severe SARS infections than in moderate infections. This indicates that SARS-CoV-2 may possess a unique immune pathology compared to other coronaviruses. In CD8+ T cells, the frequency of the non-exhausted (PD-1−CTLA-4−TIGIT−) subset in the severe group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups (Fig. 1d). Because functional blockade of PD-1, CTLA-4, and TIGIT is beneficial for CD8+ T cells to maintain lasting antigen-specific immunity and antiviral effects, 10,11 the excessive exhaustion of CD8+ T cells in severe patients may reduce their cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2. To gain a comprehensive view of the above measured parameters, we also performed a correlation network analysis, and identified variables significantly related to COVID-19 disease progression, including age, chronic ailment, loss of functional diversity in CD4+ T cells, and increased expression of regulatory molecules, especially TIGIT, in CD8+ T cells (Fig. 1e). Subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis showed that these immunological factors could better distinguish healthy, mild, and severe patients, independent of age and chronic ailment (Fig. 1f). In conclusion, our study identified potential immunological risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia and provided clues for its clinical treatment. Supplementary information Supplementary material

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Is Open Access

            CTLA-4 and PD-L1 checkpoint blockade enhances oncolytic measles virus therapy.

            We hypothesized that the combination of oncolytic virotherapy with immune checkpoint modulators would reduce tumor burden by direct cell lysis and stimulate antitumor immunity. In this study, we have generated attenuated Measles virus (MV) vectors encoding antibodies against CTLA-4 and PD-L1 (MV-aCTLA-4 and MV-aPD-L1). We characterized the vectors in terms of growth kinetics, antibody expression, and cytotoxicity in vitro. Immunotherapeutic effects were assessed in a newly established, fully immunocompetent murine model of malignant melanoma, B16-CD20. Analyses of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and restimulation experiments indicated a favorable immune profile after MV-mediated checkpoint modulation. Therapeutic benefits in terms of delayed tumor progression and prolonged median overall survival were observed for animals treated with vectors encoding anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1, respectively. Combining systemic administration of antibodies with MV treatment also improved therapeutic outcome. In vivo oncolytic efficacy against human tumors was studied in melanoma xenografts. MV-aCTLA-4 and MV-aPD-L1 were equally efficient as parental MV in this model, with high rates of complete tumor remission (> 80%). Furthermore, we could demonstrate lysis of tumor cells and transgene expression in primary tissue from melanoma patients. The current results suggest rapid translation of combining immune checkpoint modulation with oncolytic viruses into clinical application.
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              Influence of Inflammation in the Process of T Lymphocyte Differentiation: Proliferative, Metabolic, and Oxidative Changes

              T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form. This process plays a fundamental role in amplifying the activating signals on T lymphocytes and directing their clonal proliferation. The mechanisms that control cell growth are high levels of telomerase activity and maintenance of telomeric length that are far superior to other cell types, as well as metabolic adaptation and redox control. Large numbers of highly differentiated memory cells are accumulated in the immunological niches where they will contribute in a significant way to increase the levels of inflammatory mediators that will perpetuate the new state at the systemic level. These levels of inflammation greatly influence the process of T lymphocyte differentiation from naïve T lymphocyte, even before, until the arrival of exhaustion or cell death. The changes observed during lymphocyte differentiation are correlated with changes in cellular metabolism and these in turn are influenced by the inflammatory state of the environment where the cell is located. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) exert a dual action in the population of T lymphocytes. Exposure to high levels of ROS decreases the capacity of activation and T lymphocyte proliferation; however, intermediate levels of oxidation are necessary for the lymphocyte activation, differentiation, and effector functions. In conclusion, we can affirm that the inflammatory levels in the environment greatly influence the differentiation and activity of T lymphocyte populations. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in these processes. The elucidation of these mechanisms would be of great help in the advance of improvements in pathologies with a large inflammatory base such as rheumatoid arthritis, intestinal inflammatory diseases, several infectious diseases and even, cancerous processes.

                Author and article information

                Cell Mol Immunol
                Cell. Mol. Immunol
                Cellular and Molecular Immunology
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                17 March 2020
                : 1-3
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000119573309, GRID grid.9227.e, Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Kunming Institute of Zoology, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Kunming, 650223 China
                [2 ]Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Infectious Diseases, Kunming, 650301 China
                © CSI and USTC 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.



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