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      Amphotericin B lipid complex: treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B deoxycholate

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      amphotericin B lipid complex, invasive fungal infections

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          Abstract

          Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) was introduced in the late 1990s as a less toxic alternative to amphotericin B (AmB) deoxycholate. ABLC is a safe and effective broad-spectrum drug in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients with infection refractory to AmB deoxycholate or in patients intolerant of the same formulation. The drug has not been rigorously evaluated for primary therapy. Recent availability of several newer potent and safe drugs has sharply curtailed the use of potentially nephrotoxic ABLC. However, AmB lipid complex is likely to continue to play a limited albeit significant clinical role in view of the narrow spectrum of activity and significant drug-drug interactions of the newer drugs and emergence of drug-resistant fungi.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America.

          An 8-person subcommittee of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group evaluated available data on the treatment of cryptococcal disease. Opinion regarding optimal treatment was based on personal experience and information in the literature. The relative strength of each recommendation was graded according to the type and degree of evidence available to support the recommendation, in keeping with previously published guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The panel conferred in person (on 2 occasions), by conference call, and through written reviews of each draft of the manuscript. The choice of treatment for disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans depends on both the anatomic sites of involvement and the host's immune status. For immunocompetent hosts with isolated pulmonary disease, careful observation may be warranted; in the case of symptomatic infection, indicated treatment is fluconazole, 200-400 mg/day for 36 months. For those individuals with non-CNS-isolated cryptococcemia, a positive serum cryptococcal antigen titer >1:8, or urinary tract or cutaneous disease, recommended treatment is oral azole therapy (fluconazole) for 36 months. In each case, careful assessment of the CNS is required to rule out occult meningitis. For those individuals who are unable to tolerate fluconazole, itraconazole (200-400 mg/day for 6-12 months) is an acceptable alternative. For patients with more severe disease, treatment with amphotericin B (0.5-1 mg/kg/d) may be necessary for 6-10 weeks. For otherwise healthy hosts with CNS disease, standard therapy consists of amphotericin B, 0.7-1 mg/kg/d, plus flucytosine, 100 mg/kg/d, for 6-10 weeks. An alternative to this regimen is amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/d) plus 5-flucytosine (100 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks, followed by fluconazole (400 mg/day) for a minimum of 10 weeks. Fluconazole "consolidation" therapy may be continued for as along as 6-12 months, depending on the clinical status of the patient. HIV-negative, immunocompromised hosts should be treated in the same fashion as those with CNS disease, regardless of the site of involvement. Cryptococcal disease that develops in patients with HIV infection always warrants therapy. For those patients with HIV who present with isolated pulmonary or urinary tract disease, fluconazole at 200-400 mg/d is indicated. Although the ultimate impact from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is currently unclear, it is recommended that all HIV-infected individuals continue maintenance therapy for life. Among those individuals who are unable to tolerate fluconazole, itraconazole (200-400 mg/d) is an acceptable alternative. For patients with more severe disease, a combination of fluconazole (400 mg/d) plus flucytosine (100-150 mg/d) may be used for 10 weeks, followed by fluconazole maintenance therapy. Among patients with HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis, induction therapy with amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/d) plus flucytosine (100 mg/kg/d for 2 weeks) followed by fluconazole (400 mg/d) for a minimum of 10 weeks is the treatment of choice. After 10 weeks of therapy, the fluconazole dosage may be reduced to 200 mg/d, depending on the patient's clinical status. Fluconazole should be continued for life. An alternative regimen for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis is amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/d) plus 5-flucytosine (100 mg/kg/d) for 6-10 weeks, followed by fluconazole maintenance therapy. Induction therapy beginning with an azole alone is generally discouraged. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B can be substituted for amphotericin B for patients whose renal function is impaired. Fluconazole (400-800 mg/d) plus flucytosine (100-150 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks is an alternative to the use of amphotericin B, although toxicity with this regimen is high. In all cases of cryptococcal meningitis, careful attention to the management of intracranial pressure is imperative to assure optimal c
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            Posaconazole is effective as salvage therapy in zygomycosis: a retrospective summary of 91 cases.

            To evaluate the activity of posaconazole for treatment of zygomycosis, a disease for which therapeutic options are limited, we conducted a retrospective study including 91 patients with zygomycosis (proven zygomycosis, 69 patients; probable zygomycosis, 22 patients). Patients had infection that was refractory to prior antifungal treatment (n=81) or were intolerant of such treatment (n=10) and participated in the compassionate-use posaconazole (800 mg/day) program. The rate of success (i.e., either complete or partial response) at 12 weeks after treatment initiation was 60%, and 21% of patients had stable disease. The overall high success and survival rates reported here provide encouraging data regarding posaconazole as an alternative therapy for zygomycosis.
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              Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections.

              Treatments for invasive fungal infections remain unsatisfactory. We evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of voriconazole as salvage treatment for 273 patients with refractory and intolerant-to-treatment fungal infections and as primary treatment for 28 patients with infections for which there is no approved therapy. Voriconazole was associated with satisfactory global responses in 50% of the overall cohort; specifically, successful outcomes were observed in 47% of patients whose infections failed to respond to previous antifungal therapy and in 68% of patients whose infections have no approved antifungal therapy. In this population at high risk for treatment failure, the efficacy rates for voriconazole were 43.7% for aspergillosis, 57.5% for candidiasis, 38.9% for cryptococcosis, 45.5% for fusariosis, and 30% for scedosporiosis. Voriconazole was well tolerated, and treatment-related discontinuations of therapy or dose reductions occurred for <10% of patients. Voriconazole is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for refractory or less-common invasive fungal infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                December 2008
                December 2008
                : 4
                : 6
                : 1285-1294
                Affiliations
                Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: PH Chandrasekar, Harper University Hospital, 3990 John R, Detroit, MI 48201, USA, Tel +1 313 795 9649, Fax +1 313 993 0302, Email pchandrasekar@ 123456med.wayne.edu
                Article
                tcrm-4-1285
                2643109
                19337435
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                invasive fungal infections, amphotericin b lipid complex

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