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      Insulin Secretion and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Mice

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          Abstract

          Objective: Pancreatic islets isolated from mice treated neonatally with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) were used to study insulin secretion. Material and Methods: Total acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of tissue extract was measured as a cholinergic activity marker. Obesity recorded in 90-day-old MSG mice (OM) by Lee index reached 366.40 ± 1.70, compared to control mice (CM) 324.40 ± 1.10 (p < 0.0001). Glucose 5.6 m M induced insulin secretion of 36 ± 5 pg/15 min from islets of CM and 86 ± 13 from OM (p < 0.001). When glucose was raised to 16.7 m M, islets from OM secreted 1,271 ± 215 and 1,017 ± 112 pg/30 min to CM. AchE activity of pancreas from OM was 0.64 ± 0.02 nmol of substrate hydrolyzed/min/mg of tissue and 0.52 ± 0.01 to CM (p < 0.0001). Liver of obese animals also presented increase of AchE activity. Results: These indicate that OM insulin oversecretion in low glucose may be attributed, at least in part, to an enhancement of parasympathetic tonus.

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          Acetylcholinesterase staining and choline acetyltransferase activity in the young adult rat spleen: lack of evidence for cholinergic innervation.

          Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining in spleens from young adult Sprague-Dawley rats was examined following several denervation paradigms to determine the source of splenic AChE+ nerve fibers. In spleens from all control groups, AChE+ neural-like profiles were present along the vasculature and in the trabeculae. AChE+ reactivity also was present in lymphoid and reticular cells in the spleen, and in neuronal cell bodies in the superior mesenteric-coeliac ganglion (SM-CG). Neurochemical analysis revealed no significant choline acetyltransferase activity in spleens from control animals. Surgical removal of the SM-CG resulted in a total loss of both noradrenergic (NA) and AChE+ nerve profiles, as well as a loss of AChE staining in nonneural compartment in the spleen. On Days 1 and 3 after treatment, chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine also resulted in a loss of both NA and AChE nerve profiles in the spleen, except for a few resistant fibers in the hilar region. AChE reactivity in nonneural compartments also was diminished in chemically denervated regions of the spleen. AChE staining in both neural and nonneural profiles progressively increased from 10 to 56 days after chemical sympathectomy, with a time course and distribution pattern similar to NA fibers reinnervating the spleen. AChE+ staining was preserved following bilateral vagal nerve transection. The miniscule splenic levels of choline acetyltransferase suggest that at best, only a small density of cholinergic nerves distribute to the rat spleen. Further, what cholinergic innervation is present does not arise from the vagus nerve as suggested in the earlier literature. Collectively, the overlapping distribution of AChE+ and NA nerve profiles in spleen and parallel loss of both population of nerve fibers following surgical and chemical sympathectomy support the presence of AChE in NA nerves colocalized with norepinephrine, and thus make AChE+ staining an inappropriate marker for cholinergic innervation in the rat spleen.
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            Components of hypothalamic obesity: bipiperidyl-mustard lesions add hyperphagia to monosodium glutamate-induced hyperinsulinemia.

            Rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions in the general region of the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus develop hyperinsulinemia, excessive food intake and obesity. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) destroys neurons of the arcuate hypothalamic (AH) nucleus and produces hyperinsulinemic but hypophagic obesity. Bipiperidyl mustard (BPM) primarily destroys VMH neurons, but has produced only a slight obesity even when rats were maintained on high-fat diets. In the present study, rats treated with MSG (AH lesion) were hyperinsulinemic, moderately obese and hypophagic; BPM rats (primarily VMH lesion) were not different from controls when fed standard chow diets. However, MSG/BPM rats (AH + VMH lesion) were hyperinsulinemic, massively obese and hyperphagic. Thus, two components of the electrolytic lesion syndrome previously attributed to VMH damage (hyperinsulinemia and obesity) were reproduced simply by MSG treatment alone. The third component (hyperphagia) occurred only when both AH and VMH were lesioned, suggesting that neurons in both nuclei may perform a satiety function and may be able to substitute for one another in this respect. Since MSG treatment is required for all components of both obesity syndromes described here, this underscores the importance of MSG-sensitive neurons in mechanisms of obesity. The combined treatment approach also represents the first rat model of hyperinsulinemic, hyperphagic obesity that can be entirely produced by systemic administration of neurotoxins.
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              Comparison of dna contents of visceral organs in rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and fed a high fat diet

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2000
                2000
                22 June 2001
                : 54
                : 4
                : 186-191
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Maringá, Brazil
                Article
                53257 Horm Res 2000;54:186–191
                10.1159/000053257
                11416236
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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