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      Sorbents in Acute Renal Failure and the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure is currently focused on the use of modifications of dialysis (continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration) to remove middle molecular weight toxins, consisting of small proteins, and cytokines involved in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Conventional high-flux dialyzers are not efficient at removing these molecules, prompting the investigation of sorbents to augment or replace dialysis. Sorbents have been developed to modulate SIRS by targeting cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF, among others. Extensive pre-clinical studies are underway to demonstrate the clinical utility and safety of either adding sorbent hemoadsorption devices to hemodialysis, or the use of such devices alone in SIRS, sepsis, acute renal failure, cardiopulmonary bypass and end-stage renal disease.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.

          Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration is increasingly used to treat acute renal failure in critically ill patients, but a clear definition of an adequate treatment dose has not been established. We undertook a prospective randomised study of the impact different ultrafiltration doses in continuous renal replacement therapy on survival. We enrolled 425 patients, with a mean age of 61 years, in intensive care who had acute renal failure. Patients were randomly assigned ultrafiltration at 20 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 1, n=146), 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 2, n=139), or 45 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 3, n=140). The primary endpoint was survival at 15 days after stopping haemofiltration. We also assessed recovery of renal function and frequency of complications during treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. Survival in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 (p=0.0007) and 3 (p=0.0013). Survival in groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly (p=0.87). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not change the pattern of differences among the groups. Survivors in all groups had lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen before continuous haemofiltration was started than non-survivors. 95%, 92%, and 90% of survivors in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had full recovery of renal function. The frequency of complications was similarly low in all groups. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high, but increase in the rate of ultrafiltration improved survival significantly. We recommend that ultrafiltration should be prescribed according to patient's bodyweight and should reach at least 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1).
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            A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock.

            To test the hypothesis that nonselective plasma adsorption by a hydrophobic resin (coupled plasmafiltration and adsorption) could improve hemodynamics and restore leukocyte responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Prospective, pilot, crossover clinical trial. General intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Ten patients with hyperdynamic septic shock. Patients were randomly allocated to 10 hrs of either coupled plasma filtration adsorption plus hemodialysis (treatment A) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (treatment B) in random order. We measured the change in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine requirements, and leukocyte tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated) after 10 hrs of each treatment. We also tested TNF-alpha production from normal human adherent monocytes incubated with patients' plasma obtained before and after the resin, both with or without incubation with an anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody. Mean arterial pressure increased after 10 hr by 11.8 mm Hg with treatment A and by 5.5 mm Hg with treatment B (p =.001). There was an average decrease of norepinephrine requirement of 0.08 microg/kg/min with treatment A and 0.0049 microg/kg/min with treatment B (p =.003). All patients but one survived. Spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production from patients' whole blood increased over time with treatment A. This increase was more marked in blood drawn after the device (plasmafiltrate-sorbent plus hemodialyzer) (p =.009). Preresin plasma suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-alpha by 1 x 10(6)cultured adherent monocytes from healthy donors. This suppressive effect was significantly reduced after passage of plasma through the resin (p =.019) and after incubation with anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibodies (p =.028). In patients with septic shock, coupled plasmafiltration-adsorption combined with hemodialysis was associated with improved hemodynamics compared with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. This result might be related to its ability to restore leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest a potential role for blood purification in the treatment of septic shock.
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              Can inflammatory cytokines be removed efficiently by continuous renal replacement therapies?

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7535-5
                978-3-318-00939-2
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                22 January 2003
                : 21
                : 1
                : 79-84
                Affiliations
                aRenalTech International, New York, N.Y.; bUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa., cRenal Research Institute, New York, N.Y., USA, and dOspedale San Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy
                Article
                67860 Blood Purif 2003;21:79–84
                10.1159/000067860
                12566666
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/67860
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