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      Obesity alters gut microbial ecology.

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

      Animals, Bacteria, classification, genetics, isolation & purification, Base Sequence, Cyanobacteria, DNA, Ecosystem, Female, Genes, Bacterial, Humans, Intestines, microbiology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Obese, Molecular Sequence Data, Obesity, etiology, Pregnancy, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

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          Abstract

          We have analyzed 5,088 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the distal intestinal (cecal) microbiota of genetically obese ob/ob mice, lean ob/+ and wild-type siblings, and their ob/+ mothers, all fed the same polysaccharide-rich diet. Although the majority of mouse gut species are unique, the mouse and human microbiota(s) are similar at the division (superkingdom) level, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominating. Microbial-community composition is inherited from mothers. However, compared with lean mice and regardless of kinship, ob/ob animals have a 50% reduction in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and a proportional increase in Firmicutes. These changes, which are division-wide, indicate that, in this model, obesity affects the diversity of the gut microbiota and suggest that intentional manipulation of community structure may be useful for regulating energy balance in obese individuals. The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database [accession nos. DQ 014552--DQ 015671 (mothers) and AY 989911--AY 993908 (offspring)].

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          Most cited references 19

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          MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution

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            MrBayes bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models

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              Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora.

              The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential "organ" in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to uncultivated species and novel microorganisms. We discovered significant intersubject variability and differences between stool and mucosa community composition. Characterization of this immensely diverse ecosystem is the first step in elucidating its role in health and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                16033867
                1176910
                10.1073/pnas.0504978102

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