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      Meta-analysis of the incidence and risks of interstitial lung disease and QTc prolongation in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with ALK inhibitors

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          To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the overall incidence and risk of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and QTc prolongation associated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (-TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.


          A total of 1,770 patients from 8 clinical trials were included. The incidences of high-grade ILD and QTc prolongation was 2.5% (95% CI 1.7-3.6%), and 2.8% (95% CI 1.8-4.3%), respectively. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the use of ALK-TKIs in NSCLC patients significantly increased the risk of developing high-grade ILD (Peto OR, 3.27, 95%CI: 1.18–9.08, p = 0.023) and QTc prolongation (Peto OR 7.51, 95% CI, 2.16–26.15; p = 0.002) in comparison with chemotherapy alone.

          Materials and Methods

          A systematic literature search was performed to identify related citations up to January 31, 2017. Data were extracted, and summary incidence rates, Peto odds ratios (Peto ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.


          The use of ALK-TKIs significantly increases the risk of developing high-grade ILD and QTc prolongation in lung cancer patients. Clinicians should pay attention to the risks of severe ILD and QTc prolongation with the administration of these drugs.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Heterogeneity testing in meta-analysis of genome searches.

          Genome searches for identifying susceptibility loci for the same complex disease often give inconclusive or inconsistent results. Genome Search Meta-analysis (GSMA) is an established non-parametric method to identify genetic regions that rank high on average in terms of linkage statistics (e.g., lod scores) across studies. Meta-analysis typically aims not only to obtain average estimates, but also to quantify heterogeneity. However, heterogeneity testing between studies included in GSMA has not been developed yet. Heterogeneity may be produced by differences in study designs, study populations, and chance, and the extent of heterogeneity might influence the conclusions of a meta-analysis. Here, we propose and explore metrics that indicate the extent of heterogeneity for specific loci in GSMA based on Monte Carlo permutation tests. We have also developed software that performs both the GSMA and the heterogeneity testing. To illustrate the concept, the proposed methodology was applied to published data from meta-analyses of rheumatoid arthritis (4 scans) and schizophrenia (20 scans). In the first meta-analysis, we identified 11 bins with statistically low heterogeneity and 8 with statistically high heterogeneity. The respective numbers were 9 and 6 for the schizophrenia meta-analysis. For rheumatoid arthritis, bins 6.2 (the HLA region that is a well-documented susceptibility locus for the disease) and 16.3 (16q12.2-q23.1) had both high average ranks and low between-study heterogeneity. For schizophrenia, this was seen for bin 3.2 (3p25.3-p22.1) and heterogeneity was still significantly low after adjusting for its high average rank. Concordance was high between the proposed metrics and between weighted and unweighted analyses. Data from genome searches should be synthesized and interpreted considering both average ranks and heterogeneity between studies. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial--INTACT 1.

            The purpose of this study was to determine whether the addition of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839; AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE) to standard first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin provides clinical benefit over gemcitabine and cisplatin alone in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib has demonstrated encouraging efficacy in advanced NSCLC in phase II trials in pretreated patients, and a phase I trial of gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin showed favorable tolerability. This was a phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable stage III or IV NSCLC. All patients received up to six cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1 and gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of the 3-week cycle) plus either gefitinib 500 mg/d, gefitinib 250 mg/d, or placebo. Daily gefitinib or placebo was continued until disease progression. End points included overall survival (primary), time to progression, response rates, and safety evaluation. A total of 1,093 patients were enrolled. There was no difference in efficacy end points between the treatment groups: for the gefitinib 500 mg/d, gefitinib 250 mg/d, and placebo groups, respectively, median survival times were 9.9, 9.9, and 10.9 months (global ordered log-rank [GOLrank] P =.4560), median times to progression were 5.5, 5.8, and 6.0 months (GOLrank; P =.7633), and response rates were 49.7%, 50.3%, and 44.8%. No significant unexpected adverse events were seen. Gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced NSCLC did not have improved efficacy over gemcitabine and cisplatin alone. The reasons for this remain obscure and require further preclinical testing.
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              First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK -rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study


                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                22 August 2017
                29 May 2017
                : 8
                : 34
                : 57379-57385
                1 Department of Oncology, Panyu Central Hospital, Guangzhou, 511400, China
                2 School of Nursing, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510000, China
                3 Department of Ophthalmology, Panyu Central Hospital, Guangzhou, 511400, China
                4 Cancer Institute of Panyu, Guangzhou, 511400, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Liping Lin, linliping2017@
                Copyright: © 2017 Lin et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.



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