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      Quetiapine monotherapy in acute treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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          Abstract

          Background

          Some studies have indicated the efficacy of quetiapine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

          Objective

          The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of quetiapine in adult patients with GAD.

          Methods

          The SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched in April 2015. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of GAD were considered to be included in this meta-analysis. All RCTs of quetiapine in GAD patients providing endpoint outcomes relevant to severity of anxiety, response rate, remission rate, overall discontinuation rate, or discontinuation rate due to adverse events were included. The version reports from suitable clinical studies were explored, and the important data were extracted. Measurement for efficacy outcomes consisted of the mean-changed scores of the rating scales for anxiety, and response rate.

          Results

          A total of 2,248 randomized participants in three RCTs were included. The pooled mean-changed score of the quetiapine-treated group was greater than that of the placebo-treated group and comparable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Unfortunately, the response and the remission rates in only 50 and 150 mg/day of quetiapine-XR (extended-release) were better than those of the placebo. Their response and remission rates were comparable to SSRIs. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events of quetiapine-XR were greater than placebo. Only the overall discontinuation rate of quetiapine-XR at 50 and 150 mg/day and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events of quetiapine-XR at 50 mg/day were comparable to SSRIs.

          Conclusion

          Based on this meta-analysis, quetiapine-XR is efficacious in the treatment of GAD in adult patients. Despite its low acceptability and tolerability, the use of 50–150 mg/day quetiapine-XR for adult GAD patients may be considered as an alternative treatment. Further well-defined studies should be conducted to warrant these outcomes.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

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            A systematic review identifies a lack of standardization in methods for handling missing variance data.

            To describe and critically appraise available methods for handling missing variance data in meta-analysis (MA). Systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, MathSciNet, Current Index to Statistics, BMJ SearchAll, The Cochrane Library and Cochrance Colloquium proceedings, MA texts and references were searched. Any form of text was included: MA, method chapter, or otherwise. Descriptions of how to implement each method, the theoretic basis and/or ad hoc motivation(s), and the input and output variable(s) were extracted and assessed. Methods may be: true imputations, methods that obviate the need for a standard deviation (SD), or methods that recalculate the SD. Eight classes of methods were identified: algebraic recalculations, approximate algebraic recalculations, imputed study-level SDs, imputed study-level SDs from nonparametric summaries, imputed study-level correlations (e.g., for change-from-baseline SD), imputed MA-level effect sizes, MA-level tests, and no-impute methods. This work aggregates the ideas of many investigators. The abundance of methods suggests a lack of consistency within the systematic review community. Appropriate use of methods is sometimes suspect; consulting a statistician, early in the review process, is recommended. Further work is required to optimize method choice to alleviate any potential for bias and improve accuracy. Improved reporting is also encouraged.
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              Clinical pharmacokinetics of quetiapine: an atypical antipsychotic.

              Quetiapine is a dibenzothiazepine derivative that has been evaluated for management of patients with the manifestations of psychotic disorders. In pharmacokinetic studies in humans, quetiapine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with median time to reach maximum observed plasma concentration ranging from 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability is unknown, but the relative bioavailability from orally administered tablets compared with a solution was nearly complete. Food has minimal effects on quetiapine absorption. The drug is approximately 83% bound to serum proteins. Single and multiple dose studies have demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics in the clinical dose range (up to 375mg twice daily). The drug is eliminated with a mean terminal half-life of approximately 7 hours. The primary route of elimination is through hepatic metabolism. In vitro studies show that quetiapine is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. After administration of [14C]quetiapine, approximately 73% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and 21% in faeces. Quetiapine accounted for less than 1% of the excreted radioactivity. 11 metabolites formed through hepatic oxidation have been identified. Two were found to be pharmacologically active, but they circulate in plasma at 2 to 12% of the concentration of quetiapine and are unlikely to contribute substantially to the pharmacological effects of the drug. The pharmacokinetics of quetiapine do not appear to be altered by cigarette smoking. Oral clearance declines with age, and was reduced in 2 of 8 patients with hepatic dysfunction but not in patients with renal impairment. Quetiapine has no effect on the in vitro activity of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 at clinically relevant concentrations. The lack of effect of quetiapine on hepatic oxidation was confirmed in vivo by the lack of effect of quetiapine on antipyrine disposition. Quetiapine had no effect on serum lithium concentration. Phenytoin and thioridazine increase the clearance of quetiapine, and ketoconazole decreases clearance. No clinically significant effects of cimetidine, haloperidol, risperidone or imipramine on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine were noted. Quetiapine dosage adjustment, therefore, may be necessary when coadministered with phenytoin, thioridazine or other potent CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors. The relationship between the therapeutic effects and the plasma concentrations of quetiapine has been investigated in a multicentre clinical trial. There was no statistically significant association between trough plasma quetiapine concentration and clinical response as measured by traditional assessments of psychotic symptom severity. Subsequent clinical studies of the plasma concentration versus effect relationships for quetiapine may help to further define guidelines for dosage regimen design.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                12 January 2016
                : 10
                : 259-276
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                [2 ]Psychiatric Nursing Division, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Narong Maneeton, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 110 Intawaroros Road, Sriphum, Amphur Muang, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, Tel +66 53 935 422, Fax +66 53 935 426, Email narong.m@ 123456cmu.ac.th
                Article
                dddt-10-259
                10.2147/DDDT.S89485
                4716733
                26834458
                © 2016 Maneeton et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed

                Categories
                Original Research

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