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      Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis of Left Ventricular Function during Hemodialysis

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          Background: The effects of hemodialysis (HD) on left ventricular (LV) function have been studied by various echocardiographic techniques (M-mode, 2D echocardiography). These studies are hampered by a low accuracy of measurements because of geometric assumptions regarding LV shape. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) overcomes this limitation. Methods: We tested the feasibility of 3DE assessment of LV function during HD. Conventional biplane Simpson rule (BSR) and single plane area length method (SPM) for LV function analysis were used as a reference. Results: 12 HD patients were studied and in 10 (83%) a total of 80 3D datasets were acquired. In 3 patients, one dataset (4%) was of insufficient quality and excluded from analysis. Correlation between SPM, BSR and 3DE for calculation of end-diastolic (EDV, r = 0.89 and r = 0.92, respectively), end-systolic volume (ESV, r = 0.92 and r = 0.93, respectively) and for ejection fraction (EF, r = 0.90 and r = 0.88, respectively) was moderate. Limits-of-agreement results for EDV and ESV were poor with confidence intervals larger than 30 ml. Both 2DE methods underestimated end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, while overestimating ejection fraction. Conclusion: 3DE is feasible for image acquisition during HD, which opens the possibility for accurate and reproducible measurement of LV function during HD. This may improve the assessment of the acute effect of HD on LV performance, and guide therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing intradialytic hypotension.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Reproducibility and accuracy of echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular parameters using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

          We sought to determine whether assessment of left ventricular (LV) function with real-time (RT) three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) could reduce the variation of sequential LV measurements and provide greater accuracy than two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). Real-time 3DE has become feasible as a standard clinical tool, but its accuracy for LV assessment has not been validated. Unselected patients (n = 50; 41 men; age, 64 +/- 8 years) presenting for evaluation of LV function were studied with 2DE and RT-3DE. Test-retest variation was performed by a complete restudy by a separate sonographer within 1 h without alteration of hemodynamics or therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were obtained during a breath-hold, and measurements were made off-line. The test-retest variation showed similar measurements for volumes but wider scatter of LV mass measurements with M-mode and 2DE than 3DE. The average MRI end-diastolic volume was 172 +/- 53 ml; LV volumes were underestimated by 2DE (mean difference, -54 +/- 33; p < 0.01) but only slightly by RT-3DE (-4 +/- 29; p = 0.31). Similarly, end-systolic volume by MRI (91 +/- 53 ml) was underestimated by 2DE (mean difference, -28 +/- 28; p < 0.01) and by RT-3DE (mean difference, -3 +/- 18; p = 0.23). Ejection fraction by MRI was similar by 2DE (p = 0.76) and RT-3DE (p = 0.74). Left ventricular mass (183 +/- 50 g) was overestimated by M-mode (mean difference, 68 +/- 86 g; p < 0.01) and 2DE (16 +/- 57; p = 0.04) but not RT-3DE (0 +/- 38 g; p = 0.94). There was good inter- and intra-observer correlation between RT-3DE by two sonographers for volumes, ejection fraction, and mass. Real-time 3DE is a feasible approach to reduce test-retest variation of LV volume, ejection fraction, and mass measurements in follow-up LV assessment in daily practice.
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            Accurate and reproducible measurement of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction by contrast echocardiography: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

            We evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of contrast echocardiography versus tissue harmonic imaging for measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Digital echo recordings of apical LV views before and after intravenous contrast were collected from 110 consecutive patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple short-axis LV sections was performed with a 1.5-T scanner. Left ventricular volumes and EF were calculated offline by method of discs. Thirty randomly selected patients were reanalyzed for intraobserver and interobserver variability. Compared with baseline, contrast echo increased feasibility for single-plane and biplane volume analysis from 87% to 100% and from 79% to 95%, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated volume underestimation by echo, but much less pronounced with contrast. Limits of agreement between echo and MRI narrowed significantly with contrast: from -18.1% to 8.3% to -7.7% to 4.1% (EF), from -98.2 to -11.7 ml to -59.0 to 10.7 ml (end-diastolic volume), and from -58.8 to 21.8 ml to -38.6 to 23.9 ml (end-systolic volume). Ejection fraction from precontrast echo and MRI differed by > or =10% (EF units) in 23 patients versus 0 after contrast (p < 0.001). At intraobserver and interobserver analysis, limits of agreement for EF narrowed significantly with contrast. The two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of LV volumes and EF in non-selected cardiac patients was found to be more accurate and reproducible when adding an intravenous contrast agent.
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              Prognostic value of echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular systolic function in asymptomatic dialysis patients.

              Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk for heart failure, but the prevalence and the prognostic value of asymptomatic systolic dysfunction in these patients are unknown. In this prospective cohort study, the authors have therefore assessed by echocardiography the prevalence and the prognostic value of systolic function as estimated by ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening at endocardial level (endoFS), and at midwall (mwFS), in a cohort of 254 asymptomatic dialysis patients. Systolic dysfunction had a prevalence rate of 26% by endoFS and of 48% by mwFS. During the follow-up period, 125 patients had one or more fatal and nonfatal CV events. On multivariate COX regression analysis, the three LV systolic function indicators were independently associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CV events, and there were no differences in the predictive power of these indicators (P > 0.30). The prediction power of LV function indicators was largely independent of traditional and novel risk factors in ESRD such as C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA). ADMA was significantly related with LV function indicators as well as with mortality and incident CV events, but these links were much reduced (P = NS) in models including LV function indicators. Of note, the risk of CV events was minimal in patients with normal LV mass and function, intermediate in patients with either LVH or systolic dysfunction, and maximal in patients displaying both alterations. The study of myocardial contractility by echocardiography provides prognostic information independently of LV mass and other risk factors in ESRD. Risk stratification by simple systolic function parameters may prove useful in secondary prevention strategies in these patients.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                October 2007
                21 August 2007
                : 107
                : 2
                : c43-c49
                Departments of aCardiology, Thorax Center, and bMedicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                107553 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;107:c43–c49
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Left ventricular function, Hemodialysis, Diagnosis


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