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      Fibronectin Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Infection by Mediating Viral Entry

      , , , , ,

      Journal of Virology

      American Society for Microbiology

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          ABSTRACT

          Fibronectin (FN) is a high-molecular-weight extracellular matrix protein that contains the RGDS motif, which is required to bind to integrins. Synthetic RGDS peptides have been reported to compete with FN to bind to the cell surface and inhibit the function of FN. Here, we identified that synthetic RGDS peptides significantly inhibit human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in cell cultures. In addition, mice treated with RGDS peptides and infected with EV71 had a significantly higher survival rate and a lower viral load than the control group. Because RGDS peptides affect the function of FN, we questioned whether FN may play a role in virus infection. Our study indicates that overexpression of FN enhanced EV71 infection. In contrast, knockout of FN significantly reduced viral yield and decreased the viral binding to host cells. Furthermore, EV71 entry, rather than intracellular viral replication, was blocked by FN inhibitor pretreatment. Next, we found that FN could interact with the EV71 capsid protein VP1, and further truncated-mutation assays indicated that the D2 domain of FN could interact with the N-terminal fragment of VP1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the host factor FN binds to EV71 particles and facilitates EV71 entry, providing a potential therapy target for EV71 infection.

          IMPORTANCE Hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks have occurred frequently in recent years, sometimes causing severe neurological complications and even death in infants and young children worldwide. Unfortunately, no effective antiviral drugs are available for human enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease. The infection process and the host factors involved remain unknown, although several receptors have been identified. In this study, we found that the host factor fibronectin (FN) facilitated EV71 replication by interacting with EV71 particles and further mediated their entry. The RGDS peptide, an FN inhibitor, significantly inhibited EV71 replication in both RD cells and mice. In conclusion, our research identified a new host factor involved in EV71 infection, providing a new potential antiviral target for EV71 treatment.

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          Most cited references 46

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          RGD and other recognition sequences for integrins.

           E Ruoslahti (1995)
          Proteins that contain the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) attachment site, together with the integrins that serve as receptors for them, constitute a major recognition system for cell adhesion. The RGD sequence is the cell attachment site of a large number of adhesive extracellular matrix, blood, and cell surface proteins, and nearly half of the over 20 known integrins recognize this sequence in their adhesion protein ligands. Some other integrins bind to related sequences in their ligands. The integrin-binding activity of adhesion proteins can be reproduced by short synthetic peptides containing the RGD sequence. Such peptides promote cell adhesion when insolubilized onto a surface, and inhibit it when presented to cells in solution. Reagents that bind selectively to only one or a few of the RGD-directed integrins can be designed by cyclizing peptides with selected sequences around the RGD and by synthesizing RGD mimics. As the integrin-mediated cell attachment influences and regulates cell migration, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, the RGD peptides and mimics can be used to probe integrin functions in various biological systems. Drug design based on the RGD structure may provide new treatments for diseases such as thrombosis, osteoporosis, and cancer.
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            Robust hepatitis C virus infection in vitro.

            The absence of a robust cell culture model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has severely limited analysis of the HCV life cycle and the development of effective antivirals and vaccines. Here we report the establishment of a simple yet robust HCV cell culture infection system based on the HCV JFH-1 molecular clone and Huh-7-derived cell lines that allows the production of virus that can be efficiently propagated in tissue culture. This system provides a powerful tool for the analysis of host-virus interactions that should facilitate the discovery of antiviral drugs and vaccines for this important human pathogen.
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              Scavenger receptor B2 is a cellular receptor for enterovirus 71.

              Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to human enterovirus species A of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71, together with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are most frequently associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Although HFMD is considered a mild exanthematous infection, infections involving EV71, but not CVA16, can progress to severe neurological disease, including fatal encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. In recent years, epidemic and sporadic outbreaks of neurovirulent EV71 infections have been reported in Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan and China. Here, we show that human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, also known as lysosomal integral membrane protein II or CD36b like-2) is a receptor for EV71. EV71 binds soluble SCARB2 or cells expressing SCARB2, and the binding is inhibited by an antibody to SCARB2. Expression of human SCARB2 enables normally unsusceptible cell lines to support EV71 propagation and develop cytopathic effects. EV71 infection is hampered by the antibody to SCARB2 and soluble SCARB2. SCARB2 also supports the infection of the milder pathogen CVA16. The identification of SCARB2 as an EV71 and CVA16 receptor contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of these viruses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Virology
                J Virol
                American Society for Microbiology
                0022-538X
                1098-5514
                May 01 2018
                April 13 2018
                February 21 2018
                : 92
                : 9
                Article
                10.1128/JVI.02251-17
                5899198
                29467312
                © 2018
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