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      Kidney Sellers From a Village in Nepal: Protocol for an Ethnographic Study


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          Kidney selling is a global phenomenon, with higher-income countries functioning as recipients and lower-income countries as donors, reflecting the gaps due to poverty and vulnerability. In recent years, an increasing number of residents in a village near the capital city of Nepal have been selling their kidneys; however, the factors embedded in the local social, cultural, political, and individual context driving kidney selling are poorly understood.


          The aim of this study is to explore the drivers of kidney selling and its consequences in Hokse village in central Nepal, using ethnographic methods and multistakeholder consultations.


          An ethnographic approach will be adopted along with in-depth interviews and key informant interviews among the residents and kidney sellers in the village. Relevant participants in the village will be selected purposively using a snowball approach. The number of participants will be predicated on the principles of data saturation. In addition, consultations with relevant stakeholders will be conducted at various levels, which will include authorities within and outside the village, and policymakers. All interviews will be conducted face to face, audio-recorded for transcription, and subjected to a thematic analysis.


          This study was approved by Mahidol University Central Institutional Review Board (MU-CIRB 2020/217.1808) in September 2020 and by Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC 716/2020 PhD) in January 2021. The fieldwork started in February 2021 and the data analysis was completed in September 2021.


          This study is expected to provide insight into the reasons underlying the practice of kidney selling based on the example of Hokse village, along with the perspectives of multiple stakeholders.

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          Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups.

          Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.
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            Sampling Knowledge: The Hermeneutics of Snowball Sampling in Qualitative Research

            Chaim Noy (2008)
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              The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information

              Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                February 2022
                24 February 2022
                : 11
                : 2
                : e29364
                [1 ] Department of Society and Health Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University Nakhon Pathom Thailand
                [2 ] Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit Faculty of Tropical Medicine Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                [3 ] Contemplative Education Center Mahidol University Nakhon Pathom Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Luechai Sringernyuang luechai.sri@ 123456mahidol.ac.th
                Author information
                ©Bijaya Shrestha, Bipin Adhikari, Manash Shrestha, Luechai Sringernyuang. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (https://www.researchprotocols.org), 24.02.2022.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 3 April 2021
                : 10 June 2021
                : 18 July 2021
                : 25 August 2021

                ethnography,kidney selling,nepal,qualitative methods,study protocol,bioethics,medical ethics,kidney transplantation,living donors,tissue donors,tissue and organ procurement,transplantation,organ transplant


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