HIV-1 ANT70 is the first HIV-1 group O virus isolate obtained from a 25-year-old Cameroonian woman, who seroconverted in March 1987. This individual has remained asymptomatic and clinically healthy (clinical stage WHO 1, CDC II) even though she did not receive any antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 before 97 months post-seroconversion. CD4+ T cell counts declined steadily to 200/microl at 70 months postseroconversion. The HIV-1 ANT70 nucleotide and amino acid sequence diversity of the V3C3-encoding env fragment within this individual was followed over a 10-year period. RT-PCR, cloning, sequencing, and genetic analyses were performed on eight plasma follow-up samples. Extensive increasing intra- and intersample variation was observed. This is the first long-term (>10 years) follow-up of the genetic variability of an HIV-1 group O-infected individual. As the course of the disease in the HIV-1 ANT70-infected woman was similar in many aspects to that of group M-infected individuals, it remains to be elucidated whether the changes observed in the V3 loop are critical for disease progression.