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      Hypertension, diabetes and poverty among Latinx immigrants in New York City: implications for COVID-19


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          The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected Latinx immigrant neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) disproportionately. Poverty, hypertension and diabetes have been associated with adverse COIVD-19 outcomes. This study aims to assess the prevalence of these COVID-19 vulnerabilities among Latinx immigrants in NYC.


          Data were obtained from the 2018 New York City Community Health Survey. The relation between Latinx immigrant status and study outcomes was assessed in univariate and multivariable regression models.


          Latinx immigrants were 1.3 times (95% confidence interval: 1.2–1.5) more likely to have hypertension and 2.5 times (95% confidence interval: 1.9–3.2) to have diabetes, compared to the US-born Whites after adjusting for age. They were 46.5 times (95% confidence interval: 24.3–88.8) more likely to live in a neighborhood with high poverty, eight times more likely (95% confidence interval: 5.5–11.6) not to have had enough food in the previous six months and 1.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval: 1.2–1.6) to lack health insurance coverage, compared to the US-born Whites.

          Practical implications

          These findings highlight the greater vulnerabilities of Latinx immigrants in NYC to COVID-19 in the year prior to the pandemic. Poverty, food insecurity, hostile immigration policies and lack of access to health care exacerbate health disparities among Latinx immigrants in NYC.


          This study provides a public health perspective for understanding the association of health disparities and socioeconomic conditions of Latinx immigrants in NYC.

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          Most cited references40

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          Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area

          There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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            COVID-19 and African Americans

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              Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington

              Abstract Background Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. Methods After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health–Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. Results As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. Conclusions In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
                Emerald Publishing
                01 March 2021
                01 June 2021
                : 17
                : 2
                : 208-241
                [1]Department of Epidemiology, School of Global Public Health, New York University , New York, New York, USA
                Author notes
                Kamyar Arasteh can be contacted at: kamyar.arasteh@nyu.edu
                660927 IJMHSC-09-2020-0088.pdf IJMHSC-09-2020-0088
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                : 21 September 2020
                : 15 November 2020
                : 01 February 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 1, Words: 3997
                Self URI (journal-page): http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journal/ijmhsc
                research-article, Research paper
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                cat-VG, Vulnerable groups
                cat-IDMG, Inequalities & diverse/minority groups
                cat-SOCY, Sociology
                cat-RES, Race & ethnic studies
                cat-MIN, Minorities
                cat-SOCY, Sociology
                cat-RES, Race & ethnic studies
                cat-MLT, Multiculturalism
                cat-SOCY, Sociology
                cat-RES, Race & ethnic studies
                cat-RIL, Racial identity
                cat-SOCY, Sociology
                , Work
                , economy & organizations
                cat-LMOV, Labour movements
                Custom metadata
                Web-ready article package

                Access to health care,Latinx immigrants,COVID-19,Health disparities


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