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      Two dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN): synthesis, properties and applications

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          Abstract

          Comprehensive summary of the progress including crystal structures, fabrication methods, applications (especially for electronics) and functionalization of 2D-hBN from its discovery.

          Abstract

          Two dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN), an isomorph of graphene with a very similar layered structure, is uniquely featured by its exotic opto-electrical properties together with mechanical robustness, thermal stability, and chemical inertness. It is thus extensively studied for application in field effect transistors (FETs), tunneling devices, deep UV emitters and detectors, photoelectric devices, and nanofillers. 2D-hBN is considered as one of the most promising materials that can be integrated with other 2D materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), for the next generation microelectronic and other technologies. Although it is by itself an insulator, it can well be tuned by several strategies in terms of properties and functionalities, such as by doping, substitution, functionalization and hybridization, making 2D-hBN a truly versatile type of functional materials for a wide range of applications. In this review, the distinct structural characteristics of 2D-hBN, doping- and defect-induced variations in energy bands and structures, and resultant properties, are presented. There are a wide variety of processing routes that have been developed for 2D-hBN, including also those for doping, substitution, functionalization and combination with other materials to form heterostructures or h-BNC hybrid nanosheets, which are systematically elaborated for novel functions. The comprehensive overview provides the types of the state-of-the-art 2D-hBN made by new synthesis strategies, where the mainstream approaches include exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, and gas phase epitaxy, together with several other new methods that have been successfully developed in the past few years. On the basis of the extraordinary electrical and functional properties and thermal–mechanical stability, the applications of hBN-based nanosheets as substrates and dielectrics, passivation layers, and nanofillers in nanodevices and nanocomposites are discussed, together with the peculiar optical and wetting characteristics.

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          Most cited references 267

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Two Dimensional Atomic Crystals

            We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals, including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides and complex oxides. These atomically-thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.
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              Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics

               P. Kim,  C. Dean,  J. Hone (2010)
              Graphene devices on standard SiO2 substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene[1-12]. While suspending graphene above the substrate yields substantial improvement in device quality[13,14], this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality. Realization of suspended-like sample quality in a substrate supported geometry is essential to the future progress of graphene technology. In this Letter, we report the fabrication and characterization of high quality exfoliated mono- and bilayer graphene (MLG and BLG) devices on single crystal hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrates, by a mechanical transfer process. Variable-temperature magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that graphene devices on h-BN exhibit enhanced mobility, reduced carrier inhomogeneity, and reduced intrinsic doping in comparison with SiO2-supported devices. The ability to assemble crystalline layered materials in a controlled way sets the stage for new advancements in graphene electronics and enables realization of more complex graphene heterostructres.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCCCX
                Journal of Materials Chemistry C
                J. Mater. Chem. C
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7526
                2050-7534
                2017
                2017
                : 5
                : 46
                : 11992-12022
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
                [2 ]Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices
                [3 ]Tianjin University of Technology
                [4 ]Tianjin
                [5 ]China
                [6 ]Department of Materials Science & Engineering
                [7 ]National University of Singapore
                [8 ]Singapore
                Article
                10.1039/C7TC04300G
                © 2017
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7TC04300G

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