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      Medical Management of Kidney Stones: AUA Guideline

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis, prevention and follow-up of adult patients with kidney stones based on the best available published literature.

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          Most cited references49

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          Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States.

          The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110). Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28-0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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            Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis.

            We quantified the burden of urolithiasis in the United States by identifying trends in the use of health care resources and estimating the economic impact of the disease. The analytical methods used to generate these results have been described previously. The rate of national inpatient hospitalizations for a diagnosis of urolithiasis decreased by 15% and hospital length of stay decreased from 2.6 to 2.2 days between 1994 and 2000. Rates of hospitalization were 2.5 to 3-fold higher for Medicare beneficiaries with little change between 1992 and 1998. Almost 2 million outpatient visits for a primary diagnosis of urolithiasis were recorded in 2000. Hospital outpatient visits increased by 40% between 1994 and 2000 and physician office visits increased by 43% between 1992 and 2000. In the Medicare population hospital outpatient and office visits increased by 29% and 41%, respectively, between 1992 and 1998. The distribution of surgical procedures remained relatively stable through the 1990s. Shock wave lithotripsy was the most commonly performed procedure, followed closely by ureteroscopy. Overall the total estimated annual expenditure for individuals with claims for a diagnosis of urolithiasis was almost $2.1 billion in 2000, representing a 50% increase since 1994. The cost of urolithiasis is estimated at almost $2 billion annually and it appears to be increasing with time despite a shift in inpatient to outpatient treatment and the emergence of minimally invasive treatment modalities, perhaps because the prevalence of stone disease is increasing.
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              Diabetes mellitus and the risk of nephrolithiasis.

              Insulin resistance is a central feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and may increase the risk of kidney stone formation. Existing cross-sectional data on the association between DM and nephrolithiasis are limited, and no prospective study to date has evaluated the relation between DM and the risk of kidney stones. To evaluate the relation between DM and prevalent kidney stones, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 3 large cohorts including over 200,000 participants: the Nurses' Health Study I (older women), the Nurses' Health Study II (younger women), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men). We then prospectively studied the association between DM and incident nephrolithiasis over a combined 44 years of follow-up. Because insulin resistance can precede the diagnosis of DM by decades, we also prospectively examined the relation between kidney stones and the diagnosis of incident DM. Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide diuretic use, fluid intake, and dietary factors. At baseline, the multivariate relative risk of prevalent stone disease in individuals with DM compared to individuals without was 1.38 (95% CI 1.06-1.79) in older women, 1.67 (95% CI 1.28-2.20) in younger women, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.11-1.54) in men. Prospectively, the multivariate relative risk of incident kidney stone formation in participants with DM compared to participants without was 1.29 (95% CI 1.05-1.58) in older women, 1.60 (95% CI 1.16-2.21) in younger women, and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59-1.09) in men. The multivariate relative risk of incident DM in participants with a history of kidney stones compared to participants without was 1.33 (95% CI 1.18-1.50) in older women, 1.48 (95% CI 1.14-1.91) in younger women, and 1.49 (95% CI 1.29-1.72) in men. DM is a risk factor for the development of kidney stones. Additional studies are needed to determine if the increased risk of DM in stone formers is due to subclinical insulin resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Urology
                Journal of Urology
                Elsevier BV
                0022-5347
                1527-3792
                August 2014
                August 2014
                : 192
                : 2
                : 316-324
                Affiliations
                [1 ]American Urological Assocation Education and Research, Inc., Linthicum, Maryland
                Article
                10.1016/j.juro.2014.05.006
                24857648
                d34bbe5d-d6dd-4d09-be5b-2d8904f7e1cf
                © 2014

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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