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      The Relationship between Food Security Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Nutrients
      MDPI
      COVID-19, food insecurity, fruit, vegetable

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          Abstract

          The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically altered food shopping behaviors, and the resulting economic recession has caused a spike in food insecurity. Since food insecurity is associated with poor diet, especially low intake of fruits and vegetables, food-insecure individuals may disproportionately experience negative health impacts related to poor diet during the pandemic. To assess the relationship between food security status and fruit and vegetable intake during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an online survey of adult residents of the US state of Michigan in June of 2020. Among the 484 survey respondents, 36.2% were classified as food-insecure. Food-insecure respondents consumed fruits and vegetables fewer times per day than food-secure respondents and were more likely to report decreasing their consumption of any type of fruits and vegetables (total, fresh, frozen, and canned) since the pandemic started. For those who reduced their purchase of fresh fruit and vegetable, reasons included poor quality, poor availability, high price, reduced store trips, and concerns of contamination. These findings highlight the need for adequate food assistance during the COVID-19 pandemic and in future pandemics, as well as public health messages that promote healthy eating.

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          Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey

          Background On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. Methods Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. Results A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18–30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. Conclusions In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.
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            Dietary Choices and Habits during COVID-19 Lockdown: Experience from Poland

            The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019 in China, which later developed into a pandemic, has forced different countries to implement strict sanitary regimes and social distancing measures. Globally, at least four billion people were under lockdown, working remotely, homeschooling children, and facing challenges coping with quarantine and the stressful events. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1097), conducted during a nationwide quarantine, aimed to assess whether nutritional and consumer habits have been affected under these conditions. Over 43.0% and nearly 52% reported eating and snacking more, respectively, and these tendencies were more frequent in overweight and obese individuals. Almost 30% and over 18% experienced weight gain (mean ± SD 3.0 ± 1.6 kg) and loss (−2.9 ± 1.5 kg), respectively. Overweight, obese, and older subjects (aged 36–45 and >45) tended to gain weight more frequently, whereas those with underweight tended to lose it further. Increased BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, and legumes during quarantine, and higher adherence to meat, dairy, and fast-foods. An increase in alcohol consumption was seen in 14.6%, with a higher tendency to drink more found among alcohol addicts. Over 45% of smokers experienced a rise in smoking frequency during the quarantine. The study highlights that lockdown imposed to contain an infectious agent may affect eating behaviors and dietary habits, and advocates for organized nutritional support during future epidemic-related quarantines, particularly for the most vulnerable groups, including overweight and obese subjects.
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              Risk factors for disease severity, unimprovement, and mortality of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China

              Objective Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan. However, the characteristics and risk factors associated with disease severity, unimprovement and mortality are unclear. Methods All consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 11 to February 6, 2020 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Results A total of 663 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Among those, 247 (37.3%) had at least one kind of chronic disease. A total of 0.5% (n=3) of patients were diagnosed with mild COVID-19, while 37.8% (251/663), 47.5% (315/663), and 14.2% (94/663) were in moderate, severe, and critical condition, respectively. In our hospital during follow-up, 251 of 663 (37.9%) patients were improved and 25 patients died, leading to a mortality rate of 3.77%. Older patients (>60 years old) and those with chronic diseases were prone to have severe and critical COVID-19 conditions, show unimprovement, and die (P < 0.001, < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified being male (OR = 0.486, 95% CI 0.311-0.758; P = 0.001), having severe COVID-19 conditions (OR = 0.129, 95% CI 0.082-0.201; P < 0.001), expectoration (OR = 1.796, 95% CI 1.062-3.036; P = 0.029), muscle ache (OR = 0.309, 95% CI 0.153-0.626; P = 0.001), and decreased albumin (OR = 1.929, 95% CI 1.199-3.104; P = 0.007) were associated with unimprovement in COVID-19 patients. Conclusion Being male, in severe COVID-19 conditions, expectoration, muscle ache, and decreased albumin were independent risk factors which influence the improvement of COVID-19 patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                24 February 2021
                March 2021
                : 13
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Science Hall 410 W Warren, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; gs6226@ 123456wayne.edu
                Author notes
                Article
                nutrients-13-00712
                10.3390/nu13030712
                7995961
                33668207
                d353b08d-16eb-4c5f-be6e-377c9657f21a
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                covid-19,food insecurity,fruit,vegetable
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                covid-19, food insecurity, fruit, vegetable

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