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      Retinoblastoma in Children Older than 6 Years of Age

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          Abstract

          Objective: The aim of this work was to study the clinical and histopathology features and treatment outcome in retinoblastoma cases presenting at an older age (>6 years). Design: This was a retrospective study. We recruited 48 retinoblastoma patients who were treated at our institute over 7 consecutive years and were older than 6 years at presentation. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for data, including age at diagnosis, gender, laterality, family history, lag time, first symptom, misdiagnosis, clinical findings, grade and stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and follow-up status. Histopathology slides were reviewed and assessed for the presence of histopathological high-risk features (HRF) for metastasis. The main outcome measures were the frequency of atypical clinical features like hyphema, pseudohypopyon, glaucoma, cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, and phthisis, and misdiagnosis, prior intervention, stage of disease at presentation, and treatment outcome. Results: In total, 48/610 (7.8%) patients were older than 6 years, with a median age of 7 years (range 6–31). Retinoblastoma was bilateral in 7 cases. The most common initial symptom was white reflex followed by a decrease in vision. The median lag time was 9 months. Fourteen cases (29.2%) were misdiagnosed, with endophthalmitis the most common misdiagnosis. Twenty-six (54%) patients had intraocular disease, 12 (25%) had locally advanced disease, and 10 (21%) had metastatic disease at presentation. Overall, 67% (14/21) of the eyes that were enucleated upfront for presumed intraocular disease had histopathological HRF. At last follow-up, 31/36 (86%) who were treated were alive and healthy, while 5 (14%) patients had disease progression. Conclusions: This is the largest study of older age retinoblastoma and shows that it forms a significant percentage of retinoblastoma in developing countries, is misdiagnosed in one-third of cases, and may present at an advanced stage in 46% of cases.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A proposal for an international retinoblastoma staging system.

          Although intra-retinal tumor has long been staged presurgically according to the Reese-Ellsworth (R-E) system, retinoblastoma differs from other pediatric neoplasms in never having had a widely accepted classification system that encompasses the entire spectrum of the disease. Comparisons among studies that consider disease extension, risk factors for extra-ocular relapse, and response to therapy require a universally accepted staging system for extra-ocular disease. A committee of retinoblastoma experts from large centers worldwide has developed a consensus classification that can encompass all retinoblastoma cases and is presented herein. Patients are classified according to extent of disease and the presence of overt extra-ocular extension. In addition, a proposal for substaging considering histopathological features of enucleated specimens is presented to further discriminate between Stage I and II patients. The following is a summary of the classification system developed-Stage 0: Patients treated conservatively (subject to presurgical ophthalmologic classifications); Stage I: Eye enucleated, completely resected histologically; Stage II: Eye enucleated, microscopic residual tumor; Stage III: Regional extension [(a) overt orbital disease, (b) preauricular or cervical lymph node extension]; Stage IV: Metastatic disease [(a) hematogenous metastasis: (1) single lesion, (2) multiple lesions; (b) CNS extension: (1) prechiasmatic lesion, (2) CNS mass, (3) leptomeningeal disease]. A proposal is also presented for substaging of enucleated Stages I and II eyes. The proposed staging system is the product of an international effort to adopt a uniform staging system for patients with retinoblastoma to cover the whole spectrum of the disease. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Presenting signs of retinoblastoma.

            A retrospective chart review was performed on the charts of 1265 patients with retinoblastoma who were on file at New York Hospital and whose conditions had been diagnosed between the years 1960 and 1990. The mean follow-up was 90 months, ranging from 0 to 409 months. Thirty-two distinct presenting signs of retinoblastoma were identified, the most common of which were leukocoria (56.2%), strabismus (23.6%), poor vision (7.7%), and family history (6.8%). No correlation was found between any of the presenting signs and laterality, sex, race, or survival. Leukocoria correlated to Reese-Ellsworth Group Va or Vb, whereas strabismus was invariably associated with either macular tumors or macular retinal detachments. Eighty-three (96.5%) patients presenting with a family history did so before the age of 24 months. The presenting sign leading to a diagnosis of retinoblastoma was correlated with degree of advancement and tumor location. Leukocoria and strabismus are the most common presenting signs, with leukocoria correlated to more advanced disease and strabismus always associated with macular involvement. Vitreous hemorrhage (1 case, 0.1%), microphthalmos (4 cases, 0.3%), and orbital cellulitis (3 cases, 0.2%) are extremely rare presenting findings in retinoblastoma.
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              Clinical presentation and survival of retinoblastoma in Indian children.

              To study the clinical presentation and survival among Indian children with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OOP
                OOP
                10.1159/issn.2296-4657
                Ocular Oncology and Pathology
                S. Karger AG
                2296-4681
                2296-4657
                2020
                December 2020
                23 October 2020
                : 6
                : 6
                : 395-404
                Affiliations
                aOculoplastics and Ocular Oncology Service, New Delhi, India
                bDepartment of Ocular Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                cDepartment of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                dDr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                eDr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                Author notes
                *Rachna Meel, Oculoplastics and Ocular Oncology Service, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for, Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India), dr.rachnameel@gmail.com
                Article
                509040 Ocul Oncol Pathol 2020;6:395–404
                10.1159/000509040
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology

                Older age, Misdiagnosis, Retinoblastoma

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