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      Prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life of osteoporosis in patients with COPD at a community hospital in Taiwan

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          Data regarding osteoporosis in COPD patients in Taiwan remain limited. The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in COPD patients in Taiwan. The secondary end point was to examine the association between osteoporosis and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in COPD patients.

          Materials and methods

          This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 125 COPD patients (mean age 73.6 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1] 1.19±0.43 L) who had bone mineral-density measurements performed consecutively. Demographic data, lung function, and HRQL including modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, oxygen-cost diagram, Center for Epidemiologic Studies – depression scale, and COPD Assessment Test scores were recorded.


          A total of 50 (40%) participants were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. In a multivariate logistic regression model including age, smoking amount (pack-year), body mass index (BMI), and FEV 1, only BMI (odds ratio 0.824, 95% confidence interval 0.73–0.93; P=0.002) and FEV 1 (odds ratio 0.360, 95% confidence interval 0.13–0.98; P=0.046) were negatively associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis in COPD patients. In addition, COPD patients with osteoporosis had significantly higher modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale scores (1.7±0.8 vs 1.4±0.8, P=0.046), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores (36.6 vs 28.0, P=0.01), and COPD Assessment Test scores (14.7±8 vs 11.5±7, P=0.019), and lower oxygen-cost diagram score (4.8±1.8 vs 5.4±1.6, P=0.045) than patients without osteoporosis.


          The prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients was high at a community hospital in Taiwan. BMI and FEV 1 were the independent risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD. In addition, COPD patients with osteoporosis had worse HRQL than those without osteoporosis.

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          Most cited references 34

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          A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study.

          To develop and validate a new Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the SAPS II, from a large sample of surgical and medical patients, and to provide a method to convert the score to a probability of hospital mortality. The SAPS II and the probability of hospital mortality were developed and validated using data from consecutive admissions to 137 adult medical and/or surgical intensive care units in 12 countries. The 13,152 patients were randomly divided into developmental (65%) and validation (35%) samples. Patients younger than 18 years, burn patients, coronary care patients, and cardiac surgery patients were excluded. Vital status at hospital discharge. The SAPS II includes only 17 variables: 12 physiology variables, age, type of admission (scheduled surgical, unscheduled surgical, or medical), and three underlying disease variables (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, metastatic cancer, and hematologic malignancy). Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that the model performed well in the developmental sample and validated well in an independent sample of patients (P = .883 and P = .104 in the developmental and validation samples, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 in the developmental sample and 0.86 in the validation sample. The SAPS II, based on a large international sample of patients, provides an estimate of the risk of death without having to specify a primary diagnosis. This is a starting point for future evaluation of the efficiency of intensive care units.
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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow obstruction that is only partly reversible, inflammation in the airways, and systemic effects or comorbities. The main cause is smoking tobacco, but other factors have been identified. Several pathobiological processes interact on a complex background of genetic determinants, lung growth, and environmental stimuli. The disease is further aggravated by exacerbations, particularly in patients with severe disease, up to 78% of which are due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or both. Comorbidities include ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and lung cancer. Bronchodilators constitute the mainstay of treatment: β2 agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are frequently used (the former often with inhaled corticosteroids). Besides improving symptoms, these treatments are also thought to lead to some degree of disease modification. Future research should be directed towards the development of agents that notably affect the course of disease.
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                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                29 July 2015
                : 10
                : 1493-1500
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yim, Taiwan
                [2 ]Division of Chest, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan
                [5 ]College of Nursing, Dayeh University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [6 ]Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ming-Shian Lin; Wei Chen, Department of Internal Medicine; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, 539 Jhongsiao Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, Tel +886 5 276 5041, Fax +886 5 277 4511, Email 02456@ ; peteralfa2004@
                © 2015 Lin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bone density


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