Should females alter their reproductive strategy when attacked by pathogens? Two hypotheses provide opposite predictions. Terminal reproductive investment theory predicts that reproduction should increase when the risk of death increases. However, physiological trade-offs between reproduction and immune function might be expected to produce a decrease in reproduction during a robust immune response. There is evidence for both hypotheses. We examine whether age determines the effect of an immune challenge on reproductive strategy in long-winged females of the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, when fed an ecologically valid (i.e. limited) diet. The limited diet reduced reproductive output. However, even under resource-limited conditions, immune challenge had no effect on the reproductive output of young or middle-aged females. Both reproductive output and immune function (lysozyme-like activity and phenoloxidase (PO) activity) increased with age, which is contrary to both hypotheses. We hypothesize that PO activity is pleiotropic and represents an investment in both reproduction and immune function. Three proPO genes (identified in a published RNA-seq dataset (transcriptome)) were expressed either in the fat body or the ovaries (supporting the hypothesis that PO is bifunctional). The possible bifunctionality of PO suggests that it may not be an appropriate immune measure for studies on immune/reproductive trade-offs. This study also suggests that the threshold for terminal reproductive investment may not decrease prior to senescence in some species.