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Endocrine complications after busulphan and cyclophosphamide based hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A single tertiary care centre experience

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      Abstract

      Introduction:

      Endocrine complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Although HSCT is performed at various centers in India, no study is available for endocrine dysfunctions among them. This study was carried out with the objective to evaluate endocrine dysfunction among patients undergone HSCT in the past.

      Materials and Methods:

      We carried out a cross-sectional study in a 50 post-HSCT recipients (39 allogenic, 11 autologous). All relevant data were collected from patient's records. Samples for hormonal estimation were collected and stimulation tests for cortisol and growth hormone were interpreted based on peak values achieved during insulin tolerance test.

      Results:

      The mean age of patients was 26.3 ± 16.9 years (range 4-74). Adrenal insufficiency (AI) was present in 60%, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in 60%, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in 54%, hypothyroidism in 4%, hyperprolactinemia in 4%, new onset diabetes after transplant in 4%, and impaired fasting glucose in 6%. Multiple endocrine complications were common. GHD was present in 77% of children ( n = 22) although height standard deviation score was not statistically different compared to those who didn’t have GHD. HH was present in 36% of children. In adults ( n = 28), 36% had GHD, all females had HH, and 89% of males had HH. Germ cell dysfunction with compensated Leydig cell dysfunction was the most common pattern of HH in males. Fifteen patients had graft versus host disease (GVHD). GVHD had no bearing on development of endocrine deficiencies. AI was related to duration after and type of transplant, but was unrelated to steroid intake.

      Conclusions:

      Endocrine manifestations are common after HSCT; they can occur as early or late complications. All HSCT recipients should have endocrine evaluation as per prevailing guidelines.

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      Most cited references 53

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      Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.

      The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of the contributions of insulin resistance and deficient beta-cell function to the fasting hyperglycaemia (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). The accuracy and precision of the estimate have been determined by comparison with independent measures of insulin resistance and beta-cell function using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic clamps and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The estimate of insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with estimates obtained by use of the euglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.88, p less than 0.0001), the fasting insulin concentration (Rs = 0.81, p less than 0.0001), and the hyperglycaemic clamp, (Rs = 0.69, p less than 0.01). There was no correlation with any aspect of insulin-receptor binding. The estimate of deficient beta-cell function obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with that derived using the hyperglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and with the estimate from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Rs = 0.64, p less than 0.05). The low precision of the estimates from the model (coefficients of variation: 31% for insulin resistance and 32% for beta-cell deficit) limits its use, but the correlation of the model's estimates with patient data accords with the hypothesis that basal glucose and insulin interactions are largely determined by a simple feed back loop.
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        Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp.

        Several methods have been proposed to evaluate insulin sensitivity from the data obtained from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, the validity of these indices has not been rigorously evaluated by comparing them with the direct measurement of insulin sensitivity obtained with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. In this study, we compare various insulin sensitivity indices derived from the OGTT with whole-body insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. In this study, 153 subjects (66 men and 87 women, aged 18-71 years, BMI 20-65 kg/m2) with varying degrees of glucose tolerance (62 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 31 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 60 subjects with type 2 diabetes) were studied. After a 10-h overnight fast, all subjects underwent, in random order, a 75-g OGTT and a euglycemic insulin clamp, which was performed with the infusion of [3-3H]glucose. The indices of insulin sensitivity derived from OGTT data and the euglycemic insulin clamp were compared by correlation analysis. The mean plasma glucose concentration divided by the mean plasma insulin concentration during the OGTT displayed no correlation with the rate of whole-body glucose disposal during the euglycemic insulin clamp (r = -0.02, NS). From the OGTT, we developed an index of whole-body insulin sensitivity (10,000/square root of [fasting glucose x fasting insulin] x [mean glucose x mean insulin during OGTT]), which is highly correlated (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001) with the rate of whole-body glucose disposal during the euglycemic insulin clamp. Previous methods used to derive an index of insulin sensitivity from the OGTT have relied on the ratio of plasma glucose to insulin concentration during the OGTT. Our results demonstrate the limitations of such an approach. We have derived a novel estimate of insulin sensitivity that is simple to calculate and provides a reasonable approximation of whole-body insulin sensitivity from the OGTT.
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          Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2011

          CONTENTS CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES, p. S12 Classification of diabetes Diagnosis of diabetes Categories of increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) TESTING FOR DIABETES IN ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS, p. S13 Testing for type 2 diabetes and risk of future diabetes in adults Testing for type 2 diabetes in children Screening for type 1 diabetes DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS, p. S15 PREVENTION/DELAY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES, p. S16 DIABETES CARE, p. S16 Initial evaluation Management Glycemic control Assessment of glycemic control Glucose monitoring A1C Glycemic goals in adults Pharmacologic and overall approaches to treatment Therapy for type 1 diabetes Therapy for type 2 diabetes Diabetes self-management education Medical nutrition therapy Physical activity Psychosocial assessment and care When treatment goals are not met Hypoglycemia Intercurrent illness Bariatric surgery Immunization PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES COMPLICATIONS, p. S27 Cardiovascular disease Hypertension/blood pressure control Dyslipidemia/lipid management Antiplatelet agents Smoking cessation Coronary heart disease screening and treatment Nephropathy screening and treatment Retinopathy screening and treatment Neuropathy screening and treatment Foot care DIABETES CARE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS, p. S38 Children and adolescents Type 1 diabetes Glycemic control Screening and management of chronic complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes Nephropathy Hypertension Dyslipidemia Retinopathy Celiac disease Hypothyroidism Self-management School and day care Transition from pediatric to adult care Type 2 diabetes Monogenic diabetes syndromes Preconception care Older adults Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes DIABETES CARE IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS, p. S43 Diabetes care in the hospital Glycemic targets in hospitalized patients Anti-hyperglycemic agents in hospitalized patients Preventing hypoglycemia Diabetes care providers in the hospital Self-management in the hospital Diabetes self-management education in the hospital Medical nutrition therapy in the hospital Bedside blood glucose monitoring Discharge planning STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE, p. S46 Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and ongoing patient self-management education and support to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude clinical judgment or more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information about management of diabetes, refer to references 1 –3. The recommendations included are screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E. Table 1 ADA evidence grading system for clinical practice recommendations Level of evidence Description A Clear evidence from well-conducted, generalizable, randomized controlled trials that are adequately powered, including: Evidence from a well-conducted multicenter trial Evidence from a meta-analysis that incorporated quality ratings in the analysis Compelling nonexperimental evidence, i.e., “all or none” rule developed by Center for Evidence Based Medicine at Oxford Supportive evidence from well-conducted randomized controlled trials that are adequately powered, including: Evidence from a well-conducted trial at one or more institutions Evidence from a meta-analysis that incorporated quality ratings in the analysis B Supportive evidence from well-conducted cohort studies Evidence from a well-conducted prospective cohort study or registry Evidence from a well-conducted meta-analysis of cohort studies Supportive evidence from a well-conducted case-control study C Supportive evidence from poorly controlled or uncontrolled studies Evidence from randomized clinical trials with one or more major or three or more minor methodological flaws that could invalidate the results Evidence from observational studies with high potential for bias (such as case series with comparison to historical controls) Evidence from case series or case reports Conflicting evidence with the weight of evidence supporting the recommendation E Expert consensus or clinical experience These standards of care are revised annually by the ADA's multidisciplinary Professional Practice Committee, incorporating new evidence. Members of the Professional Practice Committee and their disclosed conflicts of interest are listed on page S97. Subsequently, as with all Position Statements, the standards of care are reviewed and approved by the Executive Committee of ADA's Board of Directors. I. CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES A. Classification of diabetes The classification of diabetes includes four clinical classes: Type 1 diabetes (results from β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency) Type 2 diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance) Other specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., genetic defects in β-cell function, genetic defects in insulin action, diseases of the exocrine pancreas (such as cystic fibrosis), and drug- or chemical-induced (such as in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation) Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes) Some patients cannot be clearly classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Clinical presentation and disease progression vary considerably in both types of diabetes. Occasionally, patients who otherwise have type 2 diabetes may present with ketoacidosis. Similarly, patients with type 1 diabetes may have a late onset and slow (but relentless) progression of disease despite having features of autoimmune disease. Such difficulties in diagnosis may occur in children, adolescents, and adults. The true diagnosis may become more obvious over time. B. Diagnosis of diabetes For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes was based on plasma glucose criteria, either the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or the 2-h value in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (4). In 2009, an International Expert Committee that included representatives of the ADA, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommended the use of the A1C test to diagnose diabetes, with a threshold of ≥6.5% (5), and ADA adopted this criterion in 2010 (4). The diagnostic test should be performed using a method that is certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and standardized or traceable to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) reference assay. Point-of-care A1C assays are not sufficiently accurate at this time to use for diagnostic purposes. Epidemiologic datasets show a similar relationship between A1C and risk of retinopathy as has been shown for the corresponding FPG and 2-h plasma glucose thresholds. The A1C has several advantages to the FPG and OGTT, including greater convenience, since fasting is not required; evidence to suggest greater preanalytical stability; and less day-to-day perturbations during periods of stress and illness. These advantages must be balanced by greater cost, the limited availability of A1C testing in certain regions of the developing world, and the incomplete correlation between A1C and average glucose in certain individuals. In addition, A1C levels can vary with patients' ethnicity (6) as well as with certain anemias and hemoglobinopathies. For patients with an abnormal hemoglobin but normal red cell turnover, such as sickle cell trait, an A1C assay without interference from abnormal hemoglobins should be used (an updated list is available at www.ngsp.org/interf.asp). For conditions with abnormal red cell turnover, such as pregnancy, recent blood loss or transfusion, or some anemias, the diagnosis of diabetes must employ glucose criteria exclusively. The established glucose criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes (FPG and 2-h PG) remain valid as well (Table 2). Just as there is less than 100% concordance between the FPG and 2-h PG tests, there is not perfect concordance between A1C and either glucose-based test. Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicate that, assuming universal screening of the undiagnosed, the A1C cut point of ≥6.5% identifies one-third fewer cases of undiagnosed diabetes than a fasting glucose cut point of ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) (7). However, in practice, a large portion of the diabetic population remains unaware of their condition. Thus, the lower sensitivity of A1C at the designated cut point may well be offset by the test's greater practicality, and wider application of a more convenient test (A1C) may actually increase the number of diagnoses made. Table 2 Criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes A1C ≥6.5%. The test should be performed in a laboratory using a method that is NGSP certified and standardized to the DCCT assay.* or FPG ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l). Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.* or 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) during an OGTT. The test should be performed as described by the World Health Organization, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water.* or In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis, a random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) *In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, result should be confirmed by repeat testing. As with most diagnostic tests, a test result diagnostic of diabetes should be repeated to rule out laboratory error, unless the diagnosis is clear on clinical grounds, such as a patient with a hyperglycemic crisis or classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and a random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl. It is preferable that the same test be repeated for confirmation, since there will be a greater likelihood of concurrence in this case. For example, if the A1C is 7.0% and a repeat result is 6.8%, the diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed. However, if two different tests (such as A1C and FPG) are both above the diagnostic thresholds, the diagnosis of diabetes is also confirmed. On the other hand, if two different tests are available in an individual and the results are discordant, the test whose result is above the diagnostic cut point should be repeated, and the diagnosis is made on the basis of the confirmed test. That is, if a patient meets the diabetes criterion of the A1C (two results ≥6.5%) but not the FPG ( 9 lb or were diagnosed with GDM hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension) HDL cholesterol level 250 mg/dl (2.82 mmol/l) women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) A1C ≥5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans) history of CVD In the absence of the above criteria, testing for diabetes should begin at age 45 years. If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least at 3-year intervals, with consideration of more frequent testing depending on initial results and risk status. *At-risk BMI may be lower in some ethnic groups. A. Testing for type 2 diabetes and risk of future diabetes in adults Type 2 diabetes is frequently not diagnosed until complications appear, and approximately one-fourth of all people with diabetes in the U.S. may be undiagnosed. The effectiveness of early identification of prediabetes and diabetes through mass testing of asymptomatic individuals has not been proven definitively, and rigorous trials to provide such proof are unlikely to occur. However, mathematical modeling studies suggest that screening independent of risk factors beginning at age 30 or 45 years is highly cost-effective ( 85th percentile for age and sex, weight for height >85th percentile, or weight >120% of ideal for height) Plus any two of the following risk factors: Family history of type 2 diabetes in first- or second-degree relative Race/ethnicity (Native American, African American, Latino, Asian American, Pacific Islander) Signs of insulin resistance or conditions associated with insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, hypertension, dyslipidemia, PCOS, or small-for-gestational-age birth weight) Maternal history of diabetes or GDM during the child's gestation Age of initiation: age 10 years or at onset of puberty, if puberty occurs at a younger age Frequency: every 3 years C. Screening for type 1 diabetes Generally, people with type 1 diabetes present with acute symptoms of diabetes and markedly elevated blood glucose levels, and most cases are diagnosed soon after the onset of hyperglycemia. However, evidence from type 1 prevention studies suggests that measurement of islet autoantibodies identifies individuals who are at risk for developing type 1 diabetes. Such testing may be appropriate in high-risk individuals, such as those with prior transient hyperglycemia or those who have relatives with type 1 diabetes, in the context of clinical research studies (see, for example, http://www2.diabetestrialnet.org). Widespread clinical testing of asymptomatic low-risk individuals cannot currently be recommended, as it would identify very few individuals in the general population who are at risk. Individuals who screen positive should be counseled about their risk of developing diabetes. Clinical studies are being conducted to test various methods of preventing type 1 diabetes, or reversing early type 1 diabetes, in those with evidence of autoimmunity. III. DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS Recommendations Screen for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit in those with risk factors, using standard diagnostic criteria. (B) In pregnant women not known to have diabetes, screen for GDM at 24–28 weeks of gestation, using a 75-g 2-h OGTT and the diagnostic cut points in Table 6. (B) Screen women with GDM for persistent diabetes 6–12 weeks postpartum. (E) Women with a history of GDM should have lifelong screening for the development of diabetes or prediabetes at least every 3 years. (E) For many years, GDM was defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (8), whether or not the condition persisted after pregnancy, and not excluding the possibility that unrecognized glucose intolerance may have antedated or begun concomitantly with the pregnancy. This definition facilitated a uniform strategy for detection and classification of GDM, but its limitations were recognized for many years. As the ongoing epidemic of obesity and diabetes has led to more type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age, the number of pregnant women with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes has increased (24). Because of this, it is reasonable to screen women with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (Table 4) for diabetes at their initial prenatal visit, using standard diagnostic criteria (Table 2). Women with diabetes found at this visit should receive a diagnosis of overt, not gestational, diabetes. Table 6 Screening for and diagnosis of GDM Perform a 75-g OGTT, with plasma glucose measurement fasting and at 1 and 2 h, at 24–28 weeks of gestation in women not previously diagnosed with overt diabetes. The OGTT should be performed in the morning after an overnight fast of at least 8 h. The diagnosis of GDM is made when any of the following plasma glucose values are exceeded: Fasting ≥92 mg/dl (5.1 mmol/l) 1 h ≥180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l) 2 h ≥153 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) GDM carries risks for the mother and neonate. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study (25), a large-scale (∼25,000 pregnant women) multinational epidemiologic study, demonstrated that risk of adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes continuously increased as a function of maternal glycemia at 24–28 weeks, even within ranges previously considered normal for pregnancy. For most complications, there was no threshold for risk. These results have led to careful reconsideration of the diagnostic criteria for GDM. After deliberations in 2008–2009, the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), an international consensus group with representatives from multiple obstetrical and diabetes organizations, including ADA, developed revised recommendations for diagnosing GDM. The group recommended that all women not known to have diabetes undergo a 75-g OGTT at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Additionally, the group developed diagnostic cut points for the fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose measurements that conveyed an odds ratio for adverse outcomes of at least 1.75 compared with the mean glucose levels in the HAPO study. Current screening and diagnostic strategies, based on the IADPSG statement (26), are outlined in Table 6. These new criteria will significantly increase the prevalence of GDM, primarily because only one abnormal value, not two, is sufficient to make the diagnosis. The ADA recognizes the anticipated significant increase in the incidence of GDM to be diagnosed by these criteria and is sensitive to concerns about the “medicalization” of pregnancies previously categorized as normal. These diagnostic criteria changes are being made in the context of worrisome worldwide increases in obesity and diabetes rates, with the intent of optimizing gestational outcomes for women and their babies. Admittedly, there are few data from randomized clinical trials regarding therapeutic interventions in women who will now be diagnosed with GDM based on only one blood glucose value above the specified cut points (in contrast to the older criteria that stipulated at least two abnormal values.) Expected benefits to their pregnancies and offspring is inferred from intervention trials that focused on women with more mild hyperglycemia than identified using older GDM diagnostic criteria and that found modest benefits (27,28). The frequency of their follow-up and blood glucose monitoring is not yet clear, but likely to be less intensive than women diagnosed by the older criteria. Additional well-designed clinical studies are needed to determine the optimal intensity of monitoring and treatment of women with GDM diagnosed by the new criteria (that would not have met the prior definition of GDM). It is important to note that 80–90% of women in both of the mild GDM studies (whose glucose values overlapped with the thresholds recommended herein) could be managed with lifestyle therapy alone. Because some cases of GDM may represent preexisting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, women with a history of GDM should be screened for diabetes 6–12 weeks postpartum, using nonpregnant OGTT criteria. Women with a history of GDM have a greatly increased subsequent risk for diabetes (29) and should be followed up with subsequent screening for the development of diabetes or prediabetes, as outlined in ii. testing for diabetes in asymptomatic patients. IV. PREVENTION/DELAY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES Recommendations Patients with IGT (A), IFG (E), or an A1C of 5.7–6.4% (E) should be referred to an effective ongoing support program targeting weight loss of 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150 min/week of moderate activity such as walking. Follow-up counseling appears to be important for success. (B) Based on potential cost savings of diabetes prevention, such programs should be covered by third-party payors. (E) Metformin therapy for prevention of type 2 diabetes may be considered in those at the highest risk for developing diabetes, such as those with multiple risk factors, especially if they demonstrate progression of hyperglycemia (e.g., A1C ≥6%) despite lifestyle interventions. (B) Monitoring for the development of diabetes in those with prediabetes should be performed every year. (E) Randomized controlled trials have shown that individuals at high risk for developing diabetes (those with IFG, IGT, or both) can be given interventions that significantly decrease the rate of onset of diabetes (13 –19). These interventions include intensive lifestyle modification programs that have been shown to be very effective (58% reduction after 3 years) and use of the pharmacologic agents metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors, orlistat, and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), each of which has been shown to decrease incident diabetes to various degrees. A summary of major diabetes prevention trials is shown in Table 7. Table 7 Therapies proven effective in diabetes prevention trials Study (ref.) n Population Mean age (years) Duration (years) Intervention (daily dose) Incidence in control subjects (%/year) Relative risk reduction (%) (95% CI) 3-Year number needed to treatδ Lifestyle     Finnish DPS (14) 522 IGT, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 55 3.2 I-D&E 6 58 (30–70) 8.5     DPP (13) 2,161* IGT, BMI ≥24 kg/m2, FPG >5.3 mmol/l 51 3 I-D&E 10.4 58 (48–66) 6.9     Da Qing (15) 259* IGT (randomized groups) 45 6 G-D&E 14.5 38 (14–56) 7.9     Toranomon Study (35) 458 IGT (men), BMI = 24 kg/m2 ∼55 4 I-D&E 2.4 67 (P 24 kg/m2, FPG >5.3 mmol/l 51 2.8 Metformin (1,700 mg) 10.4 31 (17–43) 13.9     Indian DPP (19) 269* IGT 46 2.5 Metformin (500 mg) 23 26 (19–35) 6.9     STOP-NIDDM (17) 1,419 IGT, FPG >5.6 mmol/l 54 3.2 Acarbose (300 mg) 12.4 25 (10–37) 9.6     XENDOS (36) 3,277 BMI >30 kg/m2 43 4 Orlistat (360 mg) 2.4 37 (14–54) 45.5     DREAM (18) 5,269 IGT or IFG 55 3.0 Rosiglitazone (8 mg) 9.1 60 (54–65) 6.9     Voglibose Ph-3 (37) 1,780 IGT 56 3.0 (1-year Rx) Vogliobose (0.2 mg) 12.0 40 (18–57) 21 (1-year Rx) Modified and reprinted with permission (38). Percentage points: δNumber needed to treat to prevent 1 case of diabetes, standardized for a 3-year period to improve comparisons across studies. *Number of participants in the indicated comparisons, not necessarily in entire study. †Calculated from information in the article. DPP, Diabetes Prevention Program; DPS, Diabetes Prevention Study; DREAM, Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication; STOP-NIDDM, Study to Prevent Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes; XENDOS, Xenical in the prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects. I, individual; G, group; D&E, diet and exercise. Follow-up of all three large studies of lifestyle intervention has shown sustained reduction in the rate of conversion to type 2 diabetes, with 43% reduction at 20 years in the Da Qing study (30), 43% reduction at 7 years in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) (31) and 34% reduction at 10 years in the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) (32). A cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that lifestyle interventions as delivered in the DPP are cost-effective (33). Group delivery of the DPP intervention in community settings has the potential to be significantly less expensive while still achieving similar weight loss (34). Based on the results of clinical trials and the known risks of progression of prediabetes to diabetes, persons with an A1C of 5.7–6.4%, IGT, or IFG should be counseled on lifestyle changes with goals similar to those of the DPP (7% weight loss and moderate physical activity of at least 150 min/week). Regarding the more difficult issue of drug therapy for diabetes prevention, a consensus panel felt that metformin should be the only drug considered (39). For other drugs, the issues of cost, side effects, and lack of persistence of effect in some studies led the panel to not recommend their use for diabetes prevention. Metformin, which was significantly less effective than lifestyle in the DPP and DPPOS, reasonably may be recommended for very-high-risk individuals (those with risk factors for diabetes and/or those with more severe or progressive hyperglycemia). Of note, in the DPP metformin was most effective compared to lifestyle in those with BMI of at least 35 kg/m2 and was not significantly better than placebo in those over age 60 years. V. DIABETES CARE A. Initial evaluation A complete medical evaluation should be performed to classify the diabetes, detect the presence of diabetes complications, review previous treatment and glycemic control in patients with established diabetes, assist in formulating a management plan, and provide a basis for continuing care. Laboratory tests appropriate to the evaluation of each patient's medical condition should be performed. A focus on the components of comprehensive care (Table 8) will assist the health care team to ensure optimal management of the patient with diabetes. Table 8 Components of the comprehensive diabetes evaluation Medical history Age and characteristics of onset of diabetes (e.g., DKA, asymptomatic laboratory finding) Eating patterns, physical activity habits, nutritional status, and weight history; growth and development in children and adolescents Diabetes education history Review of previous treatment regimens and response to therapy (A1C records) Current treatment of diabetes, including medications, meal plan, physical activity patterns, and results of glucose monitoring and patient's use of data DKA frequency, severity, and cause Hypoglycemic episodes Hypoglycemia awareness Any severe hypoglycemia: frequency and cause History of diabetes-related complications Microvascular: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy (sensory, including history of foot lesions; autonomic, including sexual dysfunction and gastroparesis) Macrovascular: CHD, cerebrovascular disease, PAD Other: psychosocial problems*, dental disease* Physical examination Height, weight, BMI Blood pressure determination, including orthostatic measurements when indicated Fundoscopic examination* Thyroid palpation Skin examination (for acanthosis nigricans and insulin injection sites) Comprehensive foot examination: Inspection Palpation of dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses Presence/absence of patellar and Achilles reflexes Determination of proprioception, vibration, and monofilament sensation Laboratory evaluation A1C, if results not available within past 2–3 months If not performed/available within past year: Fasting lipid profile, including total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides Liver function tests Test for urine albumin excretion with spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio Serum creatinine and calculated GFR Thyroid-stimulating hormone in type 1 diabetes, dyslipidemia, or women over age 50 years Referrals Annual dilated eye exam Family planning for women of reproductive age Registered dietitian for MNT DSME Dental examination Mental health professional, if needed *See appropriate referrals for these categories. B. Management People with diabetes should receive medical care from a physician-coordinated team. Such teams may include, but are not limited to, physicians, nurse practitioners, physician's assistants, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and mental health professionals with expertise and a special interest in diabetes. It is essential in this collaborative and integrated team approach that individuals with diabetes assume an active role in their care. The management plan should be formulated as a collaborative therapeutic alliance among the patient and family, the physician, and other members of the health care team. A variety of strategies and techniques should be used to provide adequate education and development of problem-solving skills in the various aspects of diabetes management. Implementation of the management plan requires that each aspect is understood and agreed to by the patient and the care providers and that the goals and treatment plan are reasonable. Any plan should recognize diabetes self-management education (DSME) and ongoing diabetes support as an integral component of care. In developing the plan, consideration should be given to the patient's age, school or work schedule and conditions, physical activity, eating patterns, social situation and cultural factors, and presence of complications of diabetes or other medical conditions. C. Glycemic control 1. Assessment of glycemic control Two primary techniques are available for health providers and patients to assess the effectiveness of the management plan on glycemic control: patient self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) or interstitial glucose, and A1C. a. Glucose monitoring Recommendations SMBG should be carried out three or more times daily for patients using multiple insulin injections or insulin pump therapy. (A) For patients using less-frequent insulin injections, noninsulin therapies, or medical nutrition therapy (MNT) alone, SMBG may be useful as a guide to the success of therapy. (E) To achieve postprandial glucose targets, postprandial SMBG may be appropriate. (E) When prescribing SMBG, ensure that patients receive initial instruction in, and routine follow-up evaluation of, SMBG technique and their ability to use data to adjust therapy. (E) Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in conjunction with intensive insulin regimens can be a useful tool to lower A1C in selected adults (age ≥25 years) with type 1 diabetes. (A) Although the evidence for A1C-lowering is less strong in children, teens, and younger adults, CGM may be helpful in these groups. Success correlates with adherence to ongoing use of the device. (C) CGM may be a supplemental tool to SMBG in those with hypoglycemia unawareness and/or frequent hypoglycemic episodes. (E) Major clinical trials of insulin-treated patients that demonstrated the benefits of intensive glycemic control on diabetes complications have included SMBG as part of multifactorial interventions, suggesting that SMBG is a component of effective therapy. SMBG allows patients to evaluate their individual response to therapy and assess whether glycemic targets are being achieved. Results of SMBG can be useful in preventing hypoglycemia and adjusting medications (particularly prandial insulin doses), MNT, and physical activity. The frequency and timing of SMBG should be dictated by the particular needs and goals of the patient. SMBG is especially important for patients treated with insulin to monitor for and prevent asymptomatic hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. For most patients with type 1 diabetes and pregnant women taking insulin, SMBG is recommended three or more times daily. For these populations, significantly more frequent testing may be required to reach A1C targets safely without hypoglycemia. The optimal frequency and timing of SMBG for patients with type 2 diabetes on noninsulin therapy is unclear. A meta-analysis of SMBG in non–insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes concluded that some regimen of SMBG was associated with a reduction in A1C of 0.4%. However, many of the studies in this analysis also included patient education with diet and exercise counseling and, in some cases, pharmacologic intervention, making it difficult to assess the contribution of SMBG alone to improved control (40). Several recent trials have called into question the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of routine SMBG in non–insulin-treated patients (41 –43). Because the accuracy of SMBG is instrument and user dependent (44), it is important to evaluate each patient's monitoring technique, both initially and at regular intervals thereafter. In addition, optimal use of SMBG requires proper interpretation of the data. Patients should be taught how to use the data to adjust food intake, exercise, or pharmacological therapy to achieve specific glycemic goals, and these skills should be reevaluated periodically. CGM through the measurement of interstitial glucose (which correlates well with plasma glucose) is available. These sensors require calibration with SMBG, and the latter are still recommended for making acute treatment decisions. CGM devices also have alarms for hypo- and hyperglycemic excursions. Small studies in selected patients with type 1 diabetes have suggested that CGM use reduces the time spent in hypo- and hyperglycemic ranges and may modestly improve glycemic control. A larger 26-week randomized trial of 322 type 1 patients showed that adults age 25 years and older using intensive insulin therapy and CGM experienced a 0.5% reduction in A1C (from ∼7.6% to 7.1%) compared to usual intensive insulin therapy with SMBG (45). Sensor use in children, teens, and adults up to age 24 years did not result in significant A1C lowering, and there was no significant difference in hypoglycemia in any group. Importantly, the greatest predictor of A1C-lowering in this study for all age-groups was frequency of sensor use, which was lower in younger age-groups. In a smaller randomized controlled trial of 129 adults and children with baseline A1C 35 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes, especially if the diabetes or associated comorbidities are difficult to control with lifestyle and pharmacologic therapy. (B) Patients with type 2 diabetes who have undergone bariatric surgery need life-long lifestyle support and medical monitoring. (E) Although small trials have shown glycemic benefit of bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI of 30–35 kg/m2, there is currently insufficient evidence to generally recommend surgery in patients with BMI 64 years of age previously immunized when they were 5 years ago. Other indications for repeat vaccination include nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal disease, and other immunocompromised states, such as after transplantation. (C) Influenza and pneumonia are common, preventable infectious diseases associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly and in people with chronic diseases. Though there are limited studies reporting the morbidity and mortality of influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia specifically in people with diabetes, observational studies of patients with a variety of chronic illnesses, including diabetes, show that these conditions are associated with an increase in hospitalizations for influenza and its complications. People with diabetes may be at increased risk of the bacteremic form of pneumococcal infection and have been reported to have a high risk of nosocomial bacteremia, which has a mortality rate as high as 50% (185). Safe and effective vaccines are available that can greatly reduce the risk of serious complications from these diseases (186,187). In a case-control series, influenza vaccine was shown to reduce diabetes-related hospital admission by as much as 79% during flu epidemics (186). There is sufficient evidence to support that people with diabetes have appropriate serologic and clinical responses to these vaccinations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends influenza and pneumococcal vaccines for all individuals with diabetes (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/). VI. PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES COMPLICATIONS A. CVD CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for individuals with diabetes, and the largest contributor to the direct and indirect costs of diabetes. The common conditions coexisting with type 2 diabetes (e.g., hypertension and dyslipidemia) are clear risk factors for CVD, and diabetes itself confers independent risk. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of controlling individual cardiovascular risk factors in preventing or slowing CVD in people with diabetes. Large benefits are seen when multiple risk factors are addressed globally (188,189). Risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and for CVD in general can be estimated using multivariable risk factor approaches, and such a strategy may be desirable to undertake in adult patients prior to instituting preventive therapy. 1. Hypertension/blood pressure control Recommendations Screening and diagnosis Blood pressure should be measured at every routine diabetes visit. Patients found to have systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mmHg should have blood pressure confirmed on a separate day. Repeat systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mmHg confirms a diagnosis of hypertension. (C) Goals A goal systolic blood pressure 115/75 mmHg are associated with increased cardiovascular event rates and mortality in individuals with diabetes (190,193,194). Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the benefit (reduction in CHD events, stroke, and nephropathy) of lowering blood pressure to 140 mmHg. Treatment strategies Although there are no well-controlled studies of diet and exercise in the treatment of hypertension in individuals with diabetes, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study in nondiabetic individuals has shown anti-hypertensive effects similar to pharmacologic monotherapy. Lifestyle therapy consists of reducing sodium intake (to 50 mg/dl, and triglycerides 40 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l) in men and >50 mg/dl (1.3 mmol/l) in women, are desirable. However, LDL cholesterol–targeted statin therapy remains the preferred strategy. (C) If targets are not reached on maximally tolerated doses of statins, combination therapy using statins and other lipid-lowering agents may be considered to achieve lipid targets but has not been evaluated in outcome studies for either CVD outcomes or safety. (E) Statin therapy is contraindicated in pregnancy. (E) Evidence for benefits of lipid-lowering therapy Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased prevalence of lipid abnormalities, contributing to their high risk of CVD. For the past decade or more, multiple clinical trials demonstrated significant effects of pharmacologic (primarily statin) therapy on CVD outcomes in subjects with CHD and for primary CVD prevention (214). Sub-analyses of diabetic subgroups of larger trials (215 –219) and trials specifically in subjects with diabetes (220,221) showed significant primary and secondary prevention of CVD events ± CHD deaths in diabetic populations. As shown in Table 11, and similar to findings in nondiabetic subjects, reduction in “hard” CVD outcomes (CHD death and nonfatal MI) can be more clearly seen in diabetic subjects with high baseline CVD risk (known CVD and/or very high LDL cholesterol levels), but overall the benefits of statin therapy in people with diabetes at moderate or high risk for CVD are convincing. Table 11 Reduction in 10-year risk of major CVD endpoints (CHD death/non-fatal MI) in major statin trials, or substudies of major trials, in diabetic subjects (n = 16,032) Study (ref.) CVD Statin dose and comparator Risk reduction (%) Relative risk reduction (%) Absolute risk reduction (%) LDL cholesterol reduction (mg/dl) LDL cholesterol reduction (%) 4S-DM (215) 2° Simvastatin 20–40 mg vs. placebo 85.7 to 43.2 50 42.5 186 to 119 36 ASPEN 2° (220) 2° Atorvastatin 10 mg vs. placebo 39.5 to 24.5 34 15 112 to 79 29 HPS-DM (216) 2° Simvastatin 40 mg vs. placebo 43.8 to 36.3 17 7.5 123 to 84 31 CARE-DM (217) 2° Pravastatin 40 mg vs. placebo 40.8 to 35.4 13 5.4 136 to 99 27 TNT-DM (218) 2° Atorvastatin 80 mg vs. 10 mg 26.3 to 21.6 18 4.7 99 to 77 22 HPS-DM (216) 1° Simvastatin 40 mg vs. placebo 17.5 to 11.5 34 6.0 124 to 86 31 CARDS (221) 1° Atorvastatin 10 mg vs. placebo 11.5 to 7.5 35 4 118 to 71 40 ASPEN 1° (220) 1° Atorvastatin 10 mg vs. placebo 9.8 to 7.9 19 1.9 114 to 80 30 ASCOT-DM (219) 1° Atorvastatin 10 mg vs. placebo 11.1 to 10.2 8 0.9 125 to 82 34 Studies were of differing lengths (3.3–5.4 years) and used somewhat different outcomes, but all reported rates of CVD death and nonfatal MI. In this tabulation, results of the statin on 10-year risk of major CVD endpoints (CHD death/nonfatal MI) are listed for comparison between studies. Correlation between 10-year CVD risk of the control group and the absolute risk reduction with statin therapy is highly significant (P = 0.0007). Analyses provided by Craig Williams, PharmD, Oregon Health & Science University, 2007. Low levels of HDL cholesterol, often associated with elevated triglyceride levels, are the most prevalent pattern of dyslipidemia in persons with type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence base for drugs that target these lipid fractions is significantly less robust than that for statin therapy (222). Nicotinic acid has been shown to reduce CVD outcomes (223), although the study was done in a nondiabetic cohort. Gemfibrozil has been shown to decrease rates of CVD events in subjects without diabetes (224,225) and in the diabetic subgroup in one of the larger trials (224). However, in a large trial specific to diabetic patients, fenofibrate failed to reduce overall cardiovascular outcomes (226). Dyslipidemia treatment and target lipid levels For most patients with diabetes, the first priority of dyslipidemia therapy (unless severe hypertriglyceridemia is the immediate issue) is to lower LDL cholesterol to a target goal of 10%). This includes most men >50 years of age or women >60 years of age who have at least one additional major risk factor (family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, or albuminuria). (C) Aspirin should not be recommended for CVD prevention for adults with diabetes at low CVD risk (10-year CVD risk 1.5 mg/dl), ARBs have been shown to delay the progression of nephropathy. (A) If one class is not tolerated, the other should be substituted. (E) Reduction of protein intake to 0.8–1.0 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 in individuals with diabetes and the earlier stages of CKD and to 0.8 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 in the later stages of CKD may improve measures of renal function (urine albumin excretion rate, GFR) and is recommended. (B) When ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or diuretics are used, monitor serum creatinine and potassium levels for the development of acute kidney disease and hyperkalemia. (E) Continued monitoring of urine albumin excretion to assess both response to therapy and progression of disease is recommended. (E) When eGFR 30 mg/g) to the normal or near-normal range may improve renal and cardiovascular prognosis, but this approach has not been formally evaluated in prospective trials. Complications of kidney disease correlate with level of kidney function. When the eGFR is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, screening for complications of CKD is indicated (Table 15). Early vaccination against hepatitis B is indicated in patients likely to progress to end-stage kidney disease. Table 15 Management of CKD in diabetes GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) Recommended All patients Yearly measurement of creatinine, urinary albumin excretion, potassium 45–60 Referral to nephrology if possibility for nondiabetic kidney disease exists (duration type 1 diabetes 87% sensitivity in detecting DPN. Loss of 10-g monofilament perception and reduced vibration perception predict foot ulcers (301). Importantly, in patients with neuropathy, particularly when severe, causes other than diabetes should always be considered, such as neurotoxic mediations, heavy metal poisoning, alcohol abuse, vitamin B12 deficiency (especially in those taking metformin for prolonged periods (302), renal disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, inherited neuropathies, and vasculitis (303). Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (304). The symptoms and signs of autonomic dysfunction should be elicited carefully during the history and physical examination. Major clinical manifestations of diabetic autonomic neuropathy include resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction, sudomotor dysfunction, impaired neurovascular function, and, potentially, autonomic failure in response to hypoglycemia. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, a CVD risk factor (93), is the most studied and clinically important form of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may be indicated by resting tachycardia (>100 bpm) or orthostasis (a fall in systolic blood pressure >20 mmHg upon standing without an appropriate heart rate response); it is also associated with increased cardiac event rates. Gastrointestinal neuropathies (e.g., esophageal enteropathy, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence) are common, and any section of the gastrointestinal tract may be affected. Gastroparesis should be suspected in individuals with erratic glucose control or with upper gastrointestinal symptoms without other identified cause. Evaluation of solid-phase gastric emptying using double-isotope scintigraphy may be done if symptoms are suggestive, but test results often correlate poorly with symptoms. Constipation is the most common lower-gastrointestinal symptom but can alternate with episodes of diarrhea. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is also associated with genitourinary tract disturbances. In men, diabetic autonomic neuropathy may cause erectile dysfunction and/or retrograde ejaculation. Evaluation of bladder dysfunction should be performed for individuals with diabetes who have recurrent urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, incontinence, or a palpable bladder. Symptomatic treatments DPN. The first step in management of patients with DPN should be to aim for stable and optimal glycemic control. Although controlled trial evidence is lacking, several observational studies suggest that neuropathic symptoms improve not only with optimization of control, but also with the avoidance of extreme blood glucose fluctuations. Patients with painful DPN may benefit from pharmacological treatment of their symptoms: many agents have efficacy confirmed in published randomized controlled trials, several of which are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the management of painful DPN. Treatment of autonomic neuropathy Gastroparesis symptoms may improve with dietary changes and prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide or erythromycin. Treatments for erectile dysfunction may include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracorporeal or intraurethral prostaglandins, vacuum devices, or penile prostheses. Interventions for other manifestations of autonomic neuropathy are described in the ADA statement on neuropathy (301). As with DPN treatments, these interventions do not change the underlying pathology and natural history of the disease process, but may have a positive impact on the quality of life of the patient. E. Foot care Recommendations For all patients with diabetes, perform an annual comprehensive foot examination to identify risk factors predictive of ulcers and amputations. The foot examination should include inspection, assessment of foot pulses, and testing for loss of protective sensation (10-g monofilament plus testing any one of: vibration using 128-Hz tuning fork, pinprick sensation, ankle reflexes, or vibration perception threshold). (B) Provide general foot self-care education to all patients with diabetes. (B) A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for individuals with foot ulcers and high-risk feet, especially those with a history of prior ulcer or amputation. (B) Refer patients who smoke, have loss of protective sensation and structural abnormalities, or have history of prior lower-extremity complications to foot care specialists for ongoing preventive care and life-long surveillance. (C) Initial screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) should include a history for claudication and an assessment of the pedal pulses. Consider obtaining an ankle-brachial index (ABI), as many patients with PAD are asymptomatic. (C) Refer patients with significant claudication or a positive ABI for further vascular assessment and consider exercise, medications, and surgical options. (C) Amputation and foot ulceration, consequences of diabetic neuropathy and/or PAD, are common and major causes of morbidity and disability in people with diabetes. Early recognition and management of risk factors can prevent or delay adverse outcomes. The risk of ulcers or amputations is increased in people who have the following risk factors: Previous amputation Past foot ulcer history Peripheral neuropathy Foot deformity Peripheral vascular disease Visual impairment Diabetic nephropathy (especially patients on dialysis) Poor glycemic control Cigarette smoking Many studies have been published proposing a range of tests that might usefully identify patients at risk of foot ulceration, creating confusion among practitioners as to which screening tests should be adopted in clinical practice. An ADA task force was therefore assembled in 2008 to concisely summarize recent literature in this area and then recommend what should be included in the comprehensive foot exam for adult patients with diabetes. Their recommendations are summarized below, but clinicians should refer to the task force report (305) for further details and practical descriptions of how to perform components of the comprehensive foot examination. At least annually, all adults with diabetes should undergo a comprehensive foot examination to identify high risk conditions. Clinicians should ask about history of previous foot ulceration or amputation, neuropathic or peripheral vascular symptoms, impaired vision, tobacco use, and foot care practices. A general inspection of skin integrity and musculoskeletal deformities should be done in a well lit room. Vascular assessment would include inspection and assessment of pedal pulses. The neurologic exam recommended is designed to identify loss of protective sensation (LOPS) rather than early neuropathy. The clinical examination to identify LOPS is simple and requires no expensive equipment. Five simple clinical tests (use of a 10-g monofilament, vibration testing using a 128-Hz tuning fork, tests of pinprick sensation, ankle reflex assessment, and testing vibration perception threshold with a biothesiometer), each with evidence from well-conducted prospective clinical cohort studies, are considered useful in the diagnosis of LOPS in the diabetic foot. The task force agrees that any of the five tests listed could be used by clinicians to identify LOPS, although ideally two of these should be regularly performed during the screening exam—normally the 10-g monofilament and one other test. One or more abnormal tests would suggest LOPS, while at least two normal tests (and no abnormal test) would rule out LOPS. The last test listed, vibration assessment using a biothesiometer or similar instrument, is widely used in the U.S.; however, identification of the patient with LOPS can easily be carried out without this or other expensive equipment. Initial screening for PAD should include a history for claudication and an assessment of the pedal pulses. A diagnostic ABI should be performed in any patient with symptoms of PAD. Due to the high estimated prevalence of PAD in patients with diabetes and the fact that many patients with PAD are asymptomatic, an ADA consensus statement on PAD (306) suggested that a screening ABI be performed in patients over 50 years of age and be considered in patients under 50 years of age who have other PAD risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or duration of diabetes >10 years). Refer patients with significant symptoms or a positive ABI for further vascular assessment and consider exercise, medications, and surgical options (306). Patients with diabetes and high-risk foot conditions should be educated regarding their risk factors and appropriate management. Patients at risk should understand the implications of the LOPS, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper care of the foot, including nail and skin care, and the selection of appropriate footwear. Patients with LOPS should be educated on ways to substitute other sensory modalities (hand palpation, visual inspection) for surveillance of early foot problems. Patients' understanding of these issues and their physical ability to conduct proper foot surveillance and care should be assessed. Patients with visual difficulties, physical constraints preventing movement, or cognitive problems that impair their ability to assess the condition of the foot and to institute appropriate responses will need other people, such as family members, to assist in their care. People with neuropathy or evidence of increased plantar pressure (e.g., erythema, warmth, callus, or measured pressure) may be adequately managed with well-fitted walking shoes or athletic shoes that cushion the feet and redistribute pressure. Callus can be debrided with a scalpel by a foot care specialist or other health professional with experience and training in foot care. People with bony deformities (e.g., hammertoes, prominent metatarsal heads, bunions) may need extra-wide or -depth shoes. People with extreme bony deformities (e.g., Charcot foot) who cannot be accommodated with commercial therapeutic footwear may need custom-molded shoes. Foot ulcers and wound care may require care by a podiatrist, orthopedic or vascular surgeon, or rehabilitation specialist experienced in the management of individuals with diabetes. VII. DIABETES CARE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS A. Children and adolescents 1. Type 1 diabetes Three-quarters of all cases of type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in individuals 240 mg/dl) or a cardiovascular event before age 55 years, or if family history is unknown, then a fasting lipid profile should be performed on children >2 years of age soon after diagnosis (after glucose control has been established). If family history is not of concern, then the first lipid screening should be considered at puberty (≥10 years). All children diagnosed with diabetes at or after puberty should have a fasting lipid profile performed soon after diagnosis (after glucose control has been established). (E) For both age-groups, if lipids are abnormal, annual monitoring is recommended. If LDL cholesterol values are within the accepted risk levels ( 160 mg/dl (4.1 mmol/l), or LDL cholesterol >130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/l) and one or more CVD risk factors, is reasonable. (E) The goal of therapy is an LDL cholesterol value 1% above the normal range for a nondiabetic pregnant woman. Preconception care of diabetes appears to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Five nonrandomized studies compared rates of major malformations in infants between women who participated in preconception diabetes care programs and women who initiated intensive diabetes management after they were already pregnant. The preconception care programs were multidisciplinary and designed to train patients in diabetes self-management with diet, intensified insulin therapy, and SMBG. Goals were set to achieve normal blood glucose concentrations, and >80% of subjects achieved normal A1C concentrations before they became pregnant. In all five studies, the incidence of major congenital malformations in women who participated in preconception care (range 1.0–1.7% of infants) was much lower than the incidence in women who did not participate (range 1.4–10.9% of infants) (78). One limitation of these studies is that participation in preconception care was self-selected rather than randomized. Thus, it is impossible to be certain that the lower malformation rates resulted fully from improved diabetes care. Nonetheless, the evidence supports the concept that malformations can be reduced or prevented by careful management of diabetes before pregnancy. Planned pregnancies greatly facilitate preconception diabetes care. Unfortunately, nearly two-thirds of pregnancies in women with diabetes are unplanned, leading to a persistent excess of malformations in infants of diabetic mothers. To minimize the occurrence of these devastating malformations, standard care for all women with diabetes who have child-bearing potential, beginning at the onset of puberty or at diagnosis, should include 1) education about the risk of malformations associated with unplanned pregnancies and poor metabolic control; and 2) use of effective contraception at all times, unless the patient has good metabolic control and is actively trying to conceive. Women contemplating pregnancy need to be seen frequently by a multidisciplinary team experienced in the management of diabetes before and during pregnancy. The goals of preconception care are to 1) involve and empower the patient in the management of her diabetes, 2) achieve the lowest A1C test results possible without excessive hypoglycemia, 3) assure effective contraception until stable and acceptable glycemia is achieved, and 4) identify, evaluate, and treat long-term diabetes complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, hypertension, and CHD (78). Among the drugs commonly used in the treatment of patients with diabetes, a number may be relatively or absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy. Statins are category X (contraindicated for use in pregnancy) and should be discontinued before conception, as should ACE inhibitors (340). ARBs are category C (risk cannot be ruled out) in the first trimester but category D (positive evidence of risk) in later pregnancy and should generally be discontinued before pregnancy. Since many pregnancies are unplanned, health care professionals caring for any woman of childbearing potential should consider the potential risks and benefits of medications that are contraindicated in pregnancy. Women using medications such as statins or ACE inhibitors need ongoing family planning counseling. Among the oral antidiabetic agents, metformin and acarbose are classified as category B (no evidence of risk in humans) and all others as category C. Potential risks and benefits of oral antidiabetic agents in the preconception period must be carefully weighed, recognizing that data are insufficient to establish the safety of these agents in pregnancy. For further discussion of preconception care, see the ADA's consensus statement on preexisting diabetes and pregnancy (78) and the position statement (341) on this subject. C. Older adults Recommendations Older adults who are functional, cognitively intact, and have significant life expectancy should receive diabetes care using goals developed for younger adults. (E) Glycemic goals for older adults not meeting the above criteria may be relaxed using individual criteria, but hyperglycemia leading to symptoms or risk of acute hyperglycemic complications should be avoided in all patients. (E) Other cardiovascular risk factors should be treated in older adults with consideration of the time frame of benefit and the individual patient. Treatment of hypertension is indicated in virtually all older adults, and lipid and aspirin therapy may benefit those with life expectancy at least equal to the time frame of primary or secondary prevention trials. (E) Screening for diabetes complications should be individualized in older adults, but particular attention should be paid to complications that would lead to functional impairment. (E) Diabetes is an important health condition for the aging population; at least 20% of patients over the age of 65 years have diabetes, and this number can be expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades. Older individuals with diabetes have higher rates of premature death, functional disability, and coexisting illnesses such as hypertension, CHD, and stroke than those without diabetes. Older adults with diabetes are also at greater risk than other older adults for several common geriatric syndromes, such as polypharmacy, depression, cognitive impairment, urinary incontinence, injurious falls, and persistent pain. The American Geriatric Society's guidelines for improving the care of the older person with diabetes (342) have influenced the following discussion and recommendations. The care of older adults with diabetes is complicated by their clinical and functional heterogeneity. Some older individuals developed diabetes years earlier and may have significant complications; others who are newly diagnosed may have had years of undiagnosed diabetes with resultant complications or may have few complications from the disease. Some older adults with diabetes are frail and have other underlying chronic conditions, substantial diabetes-related comorbidity, or limited physical or cognitive functioning. Other older individuals with diabetes have little comorbidity and are active. Life expectancies are highly variable for this population, but often longer than clinicians realize. Providers caring for older adults with diabetes must take this heterogeneity into consideration when setting and prioritizing treatment goals. There are few long-term studies in older adults demonstrating the benefits of intensive glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control. Patients who can be expected to live long enough to reap the benefits of long-term intensive diabetes management and who are active, have good cognitive function, and are willing should be provided with the needed education and skills to do so and be treated using the goals for younger adults with diabetes. For patients with advanced diabetes complications, life-limiting comorbid illness, or substantial cognitive or functional impairment, it is reasonable to set less-intensive glycemic target goals. These patients are less likely to benefit from reducing the risk of microvascular complications and more likely to suffer serious adverse effects from hypoglycemia. However, patients with poorly controlled diabetes may be subject to acute complications of diabetes, including dehydration, poor wound healing, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma. Glycemic goals at a minimum should avoid these consequences. Although control of hyperglycemia may be important in older individuals with diabetes, greater reductions in morbidity and mortality may result from control of other cardiovascular risk factors rather than from tight glycemic control alone. There is strong evidence from clinical trials of the value of treating hypertension in the elderly (343,344). There is less evidence for lipid-lowering and aspirin therapy, although the benefits of these interventions for primary and secondary prevention are likely to apply to older adults whose life expectancies equal or exceed the time frames seen in clinical trials. Special care is required in prescribing and monitoring pharmacologic therapy in older adults. Metformin is often contraindicated because of renal insufficiency or significant heart failure. TZDs can cause fluid retention, which may exacerbate or lead to heart failure. They are contraindicated in patients with CHF (New York Heart Association class III and class IV) and if used at all should be used very cautiously in those with, or at risk for, milder degrees of CHF. Sulfonylureas, other insulin secretagogues, and insulin can cause hypoglycemia. Insulin use requires that patients or caregivers have good visual and motor skills and cognitive ability. Drugs should be started at the lowest dose and titrated up gradually until targets are reached or side effects develop. Screening for diabetes complications in older adults also should be individualized. Particular attention should be paid to complications that can develop over short periods of time and/or that would significantly impair functional status, such as visual and lower-extremity complications. D. Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in persons with CF, occurring in about 20% of adolescents and 40–50% of adults. The additional diagnosis of diabetes in this population is associated with worse nutritional status, more-severe inflammatory lung disease, and greater mortality from respiratory failure. For reasons that are not well understood, women with CFRD are particularly vulnerable to excess morbidity and mortality. Insulin insufficiency related to partial fibrotic destruction of the islet mass is the primary defect in CFRD. Genetically determined function of the remaining β-cells and insulin resistance associated with infection and inflammation may also play a role. Encouraging new data suggest that early detection and aggressive insulin therapy have narrowed the gap in mortality between CF patients with and without diabetes, and have eliminated the sex difference in mortality. A consensus conference on CFRD was co-sponsored in 2009 by the American Diabetes Association, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. Recommendations for the clinical management of CFRD can be found in an ADA position statement (344a). VIII. DIABETES CARE IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS A. Diabetes care in the hospital Recommendations All patients with diabetes admitted to the hospital should have their diabetes clearly identified in the medical record. (E) All patients with diabetes should have an order for blood glucose monitoring, with results available to all members of the health care team. (E) Goals for blood glucose levels: Critically ill patients: Insulin therapy should be initiated for treatment of persistent hyperglycemia starting at a threshold of no greater than 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/l). Once insulin therapy is started, a glucose range of 140–180 mg/dl (7.8–10 mmol/l) is recommended for the majority of critically ill patients. (A) More stringent goals, such as 110–140 mg/dl (6.1–7.8 mmol/l) may be appropriate for selected patients, as long as this can be achieved without significant hypoglycemia. (C) Critically ill patients require an intravenous insulin protocol that has demonstrated efficacy and safety in achieving the desired glucose range without increasing risk for severe hypoglycemia. (E) Non–critically ill patients: There is no clear evidence for specific blood glucose goals. If treated with insulin, the premeal blood glucose target should generally be 95%) required mechanical ventilation (354). Ninety-day mortality was significantly higher in the intensive versus the conventional group (78 more deaths; 27.5% vs. 24.9%, P = 0.02) in both surgical and medical patients. Mortality from cardiovascular causes was more common in the intensive group (76 more deaths; 41.6% vs. 35.8%; P = 0.02). Severe hypoglycemia was also more common in the intensively treated group (6.8% vs. 0.5%; P 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l). Levels that are significantly and persistently above this may require treatment in hospitalized patients. In patients without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, elevated blood glucose may be due to “stress hyperglycemia,” a condition that can be established by a review of prior records or measurement of an A1C. A1C values >6.5% suggest that diabetes preceded hospitalization (358). Hypoglycemia has been defined as any blood glucose level <70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l). This is the standard definition in outpatients and correlates with the initial threshold for the release of counterregulatory hormones. Severe hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients has been defined by many as <40 mg/dl (2.2 mmol/l), although this is lower than the ∼50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/l) level at which cognitive impairment begins in normal individuals (359). As with hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia among inpatients is also associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. Early recognition and treatment of mild to moderate hypoglycemia (40 and 69 mg/dl) (2.2 and 3.8 mmol/l) can prevent deterioration to a more severe episode with potential adverse sequelae (346). Critically ill patients Based on the weight of the available evidence, for the majority of critically ill patients in the ICU setting, insulin infusion should be used to control hyperglycemia, with a starting threshold of no higher than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l). Once intravenous insulin is started, the glucose level should be maintained between 140 and 180 mg/dl (7.8 and 10.0 mmol/l). Greater benefit maybe realized at the lower end of this range. Although strong evidence is lacking, somewhat lower glucose targets may be appropriate in selected patients. However, targets less than 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) are not recommended. Use of insulin infusion protocols with demonstrated safety and efficacy, resulting in low rates of hypoglycemia, are highly recommended (346). Noncritically ill patients With no prospective RCT data to inform specific glycemic targets in noncritically ill patients, recommendations are based on clinical experience and judgment. For the majority of noncritically ill patients treated with insulin, premeal glucose targets should generally be <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) with random blood glucose levels <180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), as long as these targets can be safely achieved. To avoid hypoglycemia, consideration should be given to reassessing the insulin regimen if blood glucose levels fall below 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l). Modification of the regimen is required when blood glucose values are <70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l), unless the event is easily explained by other factors (such as a missed meal, etc.) Occasional patients with a prior history of successful tight glycemic control in the outpatient setting who are clinically stable may be maintained with a glucose range below the above cut points. Conversely, higher glucose ranges may be acceptable in terminally ill patients or in patients with severe comorbidities, as well as in those in patient-care settings where frequent glucose monitoring or close nursing supervision is not feasible. Clinical judgment, combined with ongoing assessment of the patient's clinical status, including changes in the trajectory of glucose measures, the severity of illness, nutritional status, or concurrent use of medications that might affect glucose levels (e.g., steroids, octreotide) must be incorporated into the day-to-day decisions regarding insulin dosing (346). 2. Anti-hyperglycemic agents in hospitalized patients In the hospital setting, insulin therapy is the preferred method of glycemic control in majority of clinical situations (346). In the ICU, intravenous infusion is the preferred route of insulin administration. When the patient is transitioned off intravenous insulin to subcutaneous therapy, precautions should be taken to prevent hyperglycemia escape (360,361). Outside of critical care units, scheduled subcutaneous insulin which delivers basal, nutritional, and correction (supplemental) components is preferred. Prolonged therapy with sliding scale insulin (SSI) as the sole regimen is ineffective in the majority of patients, increases risk of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and has recently been shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in general surgery patients with type 2 diabetes (362). SSI is potentially dangerous in type 1 diabetes (346). The reader is referred to several recent publications and reviews that describe currently available insulin preparations and protocols and provide guidance in use of insulin therapy in specific clinical settings including parenteral nutrition (363), enteral tube feedings, and with high-dose glucocorticoid therapy (346). There are no data on the safety and efficacy of oral agents and injectable noninsulin therapies such as GLP1 analogs and pramlintide in the hospital. They are generally considered to have a limited role in the management of hyperglycemia in conjunction with acute illness. Continuation of these agents may be appropriate in selected stable patients who are expected to consume meals at regular intervals and they may be initiated or resumed in anticipation of discharge once the patient is clinically stable. Specific caution is required with metformin, due to the possibility that a contraindication may develop during the hospitalization, such as renal insufficiency, unstable hemodynamic status, or need for an imaging study that requires a radio-contrast dye. 3. Preventing hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia, especially in insulin-treated patients, is the leading limiting factor in the glycemic management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (173). In the hospital, multiple additional risk factors for hypoglycemia are present. Patients with or without diabetes may experience hypoglycemia in the hospital in association with altered nutritional state, heart failure, renal or liver disease, malignancy, infection, or sepsis. Additional triggering events leading to iatrogenic hypoglycemia include sudden reduction of corticosteroid dose, altered ability of the patient to report symptoms, reduction of oral intake, emesis, new NPO status, inappropriate timing of short- or rapid-acting insulin in relation to meals, reduction of rate of administration of intravenous dextrose, and unexpected interruption of enteral feedings or parenteral nutrition. Despite the preventable nature of many inpatient episodes of hypoglycemia, institutions are more likely to have nursing protocols for the treatment of hypoglycemia than for its prevention. Tracking such episodes and analyzing their causes are important quality improvement activities (346). 4. Diabetes care providers in the hospital Inpatient diabetes management may be effectively championed and/or provided by primary care physicians, endocrinologists, intensivists, or hospitalists. Involvement of appropriately trained specialists or specialty teams may reduce length of stay, improve glycemic control, and improve outcomes (346). In the care of diabetes, implementation of standardized order sets for scheduled and correction-dose insulin may reduce reliance on sliding-scale management. As hospitals move to comply with “meaningful use” regulations for electronic health records, as mandated by the Health Information Technology Act, efforts should be made to assure that all components of structured insulin order sets are incorporated into electronic insulin order sets (364,365). A team approach is needed to establish hospital pathways. To achieve glycemic targets associated with improved hospital outcomes, hospitals will need multidisciplinary support to develop insulin management protocols that effectively and safely enable achievement of glycemic targets (366). 5. Self-management in the hospital Self-management of diabetes in the hospital may be appropriate for competent adult patients who: have a stable level of consciousness, have reasonably stable daily insulin requirements, successfully conduct self-management of diabetes at home, have physical skills needed to successfully self-administer insulin and perform SMBG, have adequate oral intake, and are proficient in carbohydrate counting, use of multiple daily insulin injections or insulin pump therapy, and sick-day management. The patient and physician, in consultation with nursing staff, must agree that patient self-management is appropriate under the conditions of hospitalization. Patients who use CSII pump therapy in the outpatient setting can be candidates for diabetes self-management in the hospital, provided that they have the mental and physical capacity to do so (346). A hospital policy and procedures delineating inpatient guidelines for CSII pump therapy are advisable. The availability of hospital personnel with expertise in CSII therapy is essential. It is important that nursing personnel document basal rates and bolus doses taken on a regular basis (at least daily). 6. DSME in the hospital Teaching diabetes self-management to patients in hospitals is a challenging task. Patients are ill, under increased stress related to their hospitalization and diagnosis, and in an environment not conducive to learning. Ideally, people with diabetes should be taught at a time and place conducive to learning—as an outpatient in a recognized program of diabetes education. For the hospitalized patient, diabetes “survival skills” education is generally a feasible approach. Patients and/or family members receive sufficient information and training to enable safe care at home. Those newly diagnosed with diabetes or who are new to insulin and/or blood glucose monitoring need to be instructed before discharge. Those patients hospitalized because of a crisis related to diabetes management or poor care at home need education to prevent subsequent episodes of hospitalization. An assessment of the need for a home health referral or referral to an outpatient diabetes education program should be part of discharge planning for all patients. 7. MNT in the hospital The goals of MNT are to optimize glycemic control, to provide adequate calories to meet metabolic demands, and to create a discharge plan for follow-up care (345,367). ADA does not endorse any single meal plan or specified percentages of macronutrients, and the term “ADA diet” should no longer be used. Current nutrition recommendations advise individualization based on treatment goals, physiologic parameters, and medication usage. Consistent carbohydrate meal plans are preferred by many hospitals since they facilitate matching the prandial insulin dose to the amount of carbohydrate consumed (368). Because of the complexity of nutrition issues in the hospital, a registered dietitian, knowledgeable and skilled in MNT, should serve as an inpatient team member. The dietitian is responsible for integrating information about the patient's clinical condition, eating, and lifestyle habits and for establishing treatment goals in order to determine a realistic plan for nutrition therapy (369,370). 8. Bedside blood glucose monitoring Point-of-care (POC) blood glucose monitoring performed at the bedside is used to guide insulin dosing. In the patient who is receiving nutrition, the timing of glucose monitoring should match carbohydrate exposure. In the patient who is not receiving nutrition, glucose monitoring is performed every 4 to 6 h (371,372). More frequent blood glucose testing ranging from every 30 min to every 2 h is required for patients on intravenous insulin infusions. Safety standards should be established for blood glucose monitoring, prohibiting sharing of fingerstick lancing devices, lancets, and needles to reduce the risk of transmission of blood borne diseases. Shared lancing devices carry essentially the same risk as shared syringes and needles (373). Accuracy of blood glucose measurements using POC meters has limitations that must be considered. Although the FDA allows a ±20% error for blood glucose meters, questions about the appropriateness of these criteria have been raised (388). Glucose measures differ significantly between plasma and whole blood, terms that are often used interchangeably and can lead to misinterpretation. Most commercially available capillary blood glucose meters introduce a correction factor of ∼1.12 to report a “plasma adjusted” value (374). Significant discrepancies between capillary, venous, and arterial plasma samples have been observed in patients with low or high hemoglobin concentrations, hypoperfusion, and the presence of interfering substances particularly maltose, as contained in immunoglobulins (375). Analytical variability has been described with several POC meters (376). Increasingly, newer generation POC blood glucose meters correct for variation in hematocrit and for interfering substances. Any glucose result that does not correlate with the patient's status should be confirmed through conventional laboratory sampling of plasma glucose. The FDA has become increasingly concerned about the use of POC blood glucose meters in the hospital and is presently reviewing matters related to their use. 9. Discharge planning Transition from the acute care setting is a high-risk time for all patients, not just those with diabetes or new hyperglycemia. Although there is an extensive literature concerning safe transition within and from the hospital, little of it is specific to diabetes (377). It is important to remember that diabetes discharge planning is not a separate entity, but part of an overall discharge plan. As such, discharge planning begins at admission to the hospital and is updated as projected patient needs change. Inpatients may be discharged to varied settings, including home (with or without visiting nurse services), assisted living, rehabilitation, or skilled nursing facilities. The latter two sites are generally staffed by health professionals; therefore diabetes discharge planning will be limited to communication of medication and diet orders. For the patient who is discharged to assisted living or to home, the optimal program will need to consider the type and severity of diabetes, the effects of the patient's illness on blood glucose levels, and the capacities and desires of the patient. Smooth transition to outpatient care should be ensured. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality recommends that at a minimum, discharge plans include: Medication reconciliation: The patient's medications must be cross-checked to ensure that no chronic medications were stopped and to ensure the safety of new prescriptions. Whenever possible, prescriptions for new or changed medication should be filled and reviewed with the patient and family at or before discharge Structured discharge communication: Information on medication changes, pending tests and studies, and follow-up needs must be accurately and promptly communicated to outpatient physicians, as soon as possible after discharge. Ideally the inpatient care providers or case managers/discharge planners will schedule follow-up visit(s) with the appropriate professionals, including primary care provider, endocrinologist, and diabetes educator (378). An outpatient follow-up visit with the primary care provider, endocrinologist, or diabetes educator within 1 month of discharge is advised for all patients having hyperglycemia in the hospital. Clear communication with outpatient providers either directly or via hospital discharge summaries facilitates safe transitions to outpatient care. Providing information regarding the cause or the plan for determining the cause of hyperglycemia, related complications and comorbidities, and recommended treatments can assist outpatient providers as they assume ongoing care. It is important that patients be provided with appropriate durable medical equipment, medication, supplies, and prescriptions at the time of discharge in order to avoid a potentially dangerous hiatus in care. These supplies/prescriptions should include: Insulin (vials or pens) (if needed) Syringes or pen needles (if needed) Oral medications (if needed) Blood glucose meter and strips Lancets and lancing device Urine ketone strips (type 1) Glucagon emergency kit (insulin-treated) Medical alert application/charm IX. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE There has been steady improvement in the proportion of diabetic patients achieving recommended levels of A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol in the last 10 years, both in primary care settings and in endocrinology practices. Mean A1C nationally has declined from 7.82% in 1999–2000 to 7.18% in 2004 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (379). This has been accompanied by improvements in lipids and blood pressure control and led to substantial reductions in end-stage microvascular complications in those with diabetes (380). Nevertheless, in some studies only 57.1% of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieved an A1C of <7%, only 45.5% had a blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and just 46.5% had a total cholesterol <200 mg/dl, with only 12.2% of people with diabetes achieving all three treatment goals (381). Moreover, there is persistent variation in quality of diabetes care across providers and across practice settings even after adjusting for patient factors that indicates the potential for substantial further improvements in diabetes care. While numerous interventions to improve adherence to the recommended standards have been implemented, a major contributor to suboptimal care is a delivery system that too often is fragmented, lacks clinical information capabilities, often duplicates services, and is poorly designed for the delivery of chronic care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) includes six core elements for the provision of optimal care of patients with chronic disease: 1) delivery system design (moving from a reactive to a proactive care delivery system, where planned visits are coordinated through a team-based approach; 2) self-management support; 3) decision support (basing care on consistent, effective care guidelines); 4) clinical information systems (using registries that can provide patient-specific and population-based support to the care team); 5) community resources and policies (identifying or developing resources to support healthy lifestyles); and 6) health systems (to create a quality-oriented culture). Alterations in reimbursement that reward the provision of quality care, as defined by the attainment of evidence-based quality measures, will also be required to achieve desired outcome goals. Redefinition of the roles of the clinic staff and promoting self-management on the part of the patient are fundamental to the successful implementation of the CCM (382). Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide such care for people with chronic conditions like diabetes and to facilitate patients' performance of appropriate self-management. A rapidly evolving literature suggests that there are three major strategies to successfully improve the quality of diabetes care delivered by a team of providers. NDEP maintains an online resource (www.betterdiabetescare.nih.gov) to help health care professionals design and implement more effective health care delivery systems for those with diabetes. Three specific objectives, with references to literature that outlines practical strategies to achieve each, are outlined below. Objective 1 Provider and team behavior change: Facilitate timely and appropriate intensification of lifestyle and/or pharmaceutical therapy of patients who have not achieved beneficial levels of blood pressure, lipid, or glucose control. Clinical information systems including registries that can prospectively identify and track those requiring assessments and/or treatment modifications by the team. Electronic medical record-based clinical decision support at the point of care, both personalize and standardize care and can be used by multiple providers (383). Use of checklists and/or flow sheets that mirror guidelines. Detailed treatment algorithms enabling multiple team members to “treat to target” and appropriately intensify therapy. Availability of care or disease management services (384) by nurses, pharmacists, and other providers using detailed algorithms often catalyzing reduction in A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol (385,386). Objective 2 Patient behavior change: Implement a systematic approach to support patients' behavior change efforts as needed including 1) healthy lifestyle (physical activity, healthy eating, nonuse of tobacco, weight management, effective coping, medication taking and management); 2) prevention of diabetes complications (screening for eye, foot, and renal complications; immunizations); and 3) achievement of appropriate blood pressure, lipid, and glucose goals. Delivery of high-quality DSME, which has been shown to improve patient self-management, satisfaction, and glucose control (115,387). Delivery of ongoing diabetes self-management support (DSMS) to ensure that gains achieved during DSME are sustained (128–129). National DSME standards call for an integrated approach that includes clinical content and skills, behavioral strategies (goal-setting, problem solving), and addressing emotional concerns in each needed curriculum content area. Provision of continuing education and support (DSMS) improves maintenance of gains regardless of the educational methodology (89). Provision of automated reminders via multiple communication channels to various subgroups of diabetic patients (96). Objective 3 Change the system of care: Research on the comprehensive CCM suggests additional strategies to improve diabetes care, including the following: Basing care on consistent, evidence-based care guidelines Redefining and expanding the roles of the clinic staff (382) Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams to provide high-quality care and support patients' appropriate self-management Audit and feedback of process and outcome data to providers to encourage population-based care improvement strategies Care management, one of the most effective diabetes quality improvement strategies to improve glycemic control (384). Identifying and/or developing community resources and public policy that support healthy lifestyles Alterations in reimbursement that reward the provision of appropriate and high-quality care and accommodate the need to personalize care goals, providing additional incentives to improve diabetes care (382,388 –392) The most successful practices have an institutional priority for quality of care, expanding the role of teams and staff, redesigning their delivery system, activating and educating their patients, and using electronic health record tools (393,394). Recent initiatives such as the Patient Centered Medical Home show promise in improving outcomes through coordinated primary care and offer new opportunities for team-based chronic disease care (395). It is clear that optimal diabetes management requires an organized, systematic approach and involvement of a coordinated team of dedicated health care professionals working in an environment where patient-centered high-quality care is a priority.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Endocrinology, Army Hospital (Research and Referral), Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, India
            [1 ] Department of Haematology, Army Hospital (Research and Referral), Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, India
            Author notes
            Corresponding Author: Col. (Prof.) M. K. Garg, Department of Endocrinology, Command Hospital (Southern Command), Pune, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: mkgargs@ 123456gmail.com
            Journal
            Indian J Endocrinol Metab
            Indian J Endocrinol Metab
            IJEM
            Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            2230-8210
            2230-9500
            Sep-Oct 2013
            : 17
            : 5
            : 855-863
            24083167
            3784869
            IJEM-17-855
            10.4103/2230-8210.117248
            Copyright: © Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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