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      Is Open Access

      Detection and analysis of circulating large intergenic non‐coding RNA regulator of reprogramming in plasma for breast cancer

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          Abstract

          Background

          Previous studies have indicated that large intergenic non‐coding RNA regulator of reprogramming (lincRNA‐ROR) plays an important role in regulating tumor carcinogenesis and metastasis; however, whether circulating lincRNA‐ROR could function as a potential biomarker for breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and monitoring is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate circulating lincRNA‐ROR in plasma as a potential biomarker for BC diagnosis and monitoring.

          Methods

          We performed reverse transcription‐quantitative‐PCR to examine lincRNA‐ROR expression levels in cell lines, 24 pairs of BC tissue samples, and 94 plasma samples from BC patients. Potential correlations between plasma lincRNA‐ROR levels and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to evaluate the diagnostic values for BC. Pearson correlation analysis of lincRNA‐ROR in plasma samples and the corresponding tissues of the same patients was performed to explore tumor monitoring values.

          Results

          LincRNA‐ROR expression was significantly increased in BC cell lines, tissues, and plasma (all P < 0.01). Plasma lincRNA‐ROR levels were associated with estrogen receptors ( P = 0.042) and lymph node metastasis ( P = 0.046). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of plasma lincRNA‐ROR was 0.844 (sensitivity 80.0%, specificity 56.7%), which was higher than carcinoembryonic and carbohydrate antigen 15‐3 values. Moreover, plasma lincRNA‐ROR levels were decreased in postoperative compared to preoperative samples ( P < 0.0001). Plasma lincRNA‐ROR levels moderately correlated with the corresponding tissue level in the same patients (r 2 = 0.638, P < 0.0001).

          Conclusion

          Plasma lincRNA‐ROR may be a potential biomarker for BC diagnosis and a dynamic monitor.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

           K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Global cancer statistics, 2012.

            Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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              Molecular mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs.

              Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. Here we discuss the emerging archetypes of molecular functions that lncRNAs execute-as signals, decoys, guides, and scaffolds. For each archetype, examples from several disparate biological contexts illustrate the commonality of the molecular mechanisms, and these mechanistic views provide useful explanations and predictions of biological outcomes. These archetypes of lncRNA function may be a useful framework to consider how lncRNAs acquire properties as biological signal transducers and hint at their possible origins in evolution. As new lncRNAs are being discovered at a rapid pace, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs are likely to be enriched and diversified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                13308216138@163.com
                liujb7203@163.com
                Journal
                Thorac Cancer
                Thorac Cancer
                10.1111/(ISSN)1759-7714
                TCA
                Thoracic Cancer
                John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd (Melbourne )
                1759-7706
                1759-7714
                01 November 2017
                January 2018
                : 9
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/tca.2018.9.issue-1 )
                : 66-74
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Laboratory Medicine The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University Luzhou China
                [ 2 ] Department of Laboratory Medicine West China Hospital, Sichuan University Chengdu China
                [ 3 ] Department of Laboratory Medicine Sichuan Cancer Hospital Chengdu China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Jinbo Liu, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China.

                Tel: +86 83 0316 5730

                Fax: +86 83 0316 5730

                Email: liujb7203@ 123456163.com

                Li Zhang, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

                Tel: +86 28 8542 2344

                Fax: +86 28 8542 2344

                Email: 13308216138@ 123456163.com

                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                TCA12537
                10.1111/1759-7714.12537
                5754303
                29090518
                © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 9, Words: 5952
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: The Science & Technology Department of Sichuan Province
                Award ID: 14JC0801
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                tca12537
                January 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.8 mode:remove_FC converted:04.01.2018

                lincrna‐ror, breast cancer, plasma biomarker

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