Objective This study conducted a tobacco control intervention practice on vocational school students based on social cognitive theory, for exploring the practical and feasible tobacco control strategies among students, so as to reduce adolescents' smoking behaviors.
Methods Cluster random sampling method was used to select students in four vocational schools in Shanghai, which were randomly divided into the intervention group (2 schools 1 003 students) and the control group (2 schools 1 096 students). The intervention was conducted on the intervention group based on the social cognitive theory and lasted for 6 months. The control group was blank. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the effect of intervention.
Results After the intervention, in the intervention group, the current smoking rate (2.77%) and the smoking intention in the next 1 year (8.50% ) both decreased, the scores of the cognition of the harm of smoking as well as second hand smoking and the attitudes towards tobacco all increased (39.04%, 32.93%), the self-efficacy of refusing smoking increased (88.93%), the social pressure decreased (12.40%) , the exposure rate of secondhand smoke in family decreased (35.45%) , and the exposure to tobacco control message on media increased (36.68%). The difference was statistical significant compared to the control group (χ 2 =8.67, 19.32, 17.87, 8.32, 13.51, 14.71, 17.36, 20.09, P<0.01).
Conclusion The tobacco control model based on social cognitive theory could effectively improve adolescents' self-efficacy, increase their tobacco-related knowledge, and significantly reduce their future smoking intention and behavior.
【摘要】 目的 了解社会认知理论为基础在中职学生中开展控烟干预实践的效果, 为探寻切实可行的学生控烟策略 提供参考。 方法 采用整群随机抽样的方法, 在上海选择4所中职学校学生为研究对象, 并随机分成干预组 (2所, 1003 名) 和对照组 (2所, 1 096名) 。基于社会认知理论在干预组中开展干预, 干预时间为6个月；对照组为空白对照。通过描 述性和分析性统计方法评估干预效果。 结果 干预后, 干预组的现在吸烟率 (2.77%)、未来1年吸烟意向 (8.50%)均降 低, 对烟草危害及二手烟具体危害的认知均增加 (39.04%, 32.93%0, 拒烟自我效能增加 (88.93%), 行为压力降低 (12.40%), 家庭二手烟暴露率下降 (35.45%), 控烟信息的媒体关注度上升 (36.68%), 与对照组之间差异均有统计学意义 (χ 2值分别为8.67, 19.32, 17.87, 8.32, 13.51, 14.71, 17.36, 20.09, P 值均<0.01)。 结论 以社会认知理论为基础的控烟模式 能够有效提高青少年的自我效能, 增加青少年的烟草相关知识, 可降低青少年的未来吸烟意向和吸烟行为。