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Cardiovascular effects of N-butylscopolammonium bromide and xylazine in horses : Effects of N-butylscopalammonium bromide and xylazine in horses

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Equine Veterinary Journal

Wiley

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      Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

      A high degree of heart rate (HR) variability is found in compensated hearts with good function, whereas HR variability can be decreased with severe coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, aging and diabetic neuropathy. To test the hypothesis that HR variability is a predictor of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Holter tapes of 808 patients who survived AMI were analyzed. Heart rate variability was defined as the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in a 24-hour continuous electrocardiogram recording made 11 +/- 3 days after AMI. In all patients demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were measured at baseline. Mean follow-up time was 31 months. Of all Holter variables measured, HR variability had the strongest univariate correlation with mortality. The relative risk of mortality was 5.3 times higher in the group with HR variability of less than 50 ms than the group with HR variability of more than 100 ms. HR variability remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for clinical, demographic, other Holter features and ejection fraction. A hypothesis to explain this finding is that decreased HR variability correlates with increased sympathetic or decreased vagal tone, which may predispose to ventricular fibrillation.
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        Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses.

         S Katoh,  Y Izumisawa,  T Seno (2000)
        The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine, and xylazine in horses were studied. Fifteen horses, whose right carotid arteries had previously been surgically raised to a subcutaneous position during general anesthesia were used. Five horses each were given the following 8 treatments: an intravenous injection of 4 doses of medetomidine (3, 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg), 3 doses of detomidine (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg), and one dose of xylazine (1 mg/kg). Heart rate decreased, but not statistically significant. Atrio-ventricular block was observed following all treatments and prolonged with detomidine. Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV) were decreased with all treatments. The CI decreased to about 50% of baseline values for 5 min after 7.5 and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine, for 20 min after 20 microg/kg detomidine, and for 50 min after 40 microg/kg detomidine. All treatments produced an initial hypertension within 2 min of drug administration followed by a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure (ABP) in horses administered 3 to 7.5 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Hypertension was significantly prolonged in 20 and 40 microg/kg detomidine. The hypotensive phase was not observed in 10 microg/kg medetomidine or detomidine. The changes in ABP were associated with an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Respiratory rate was decreased for 40 to 120 min in 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen decreased significantly in 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine, while the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide did not change significantly. Medetomidine induced dose-dependent cardiovascular depression similar to detomidine. The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine and xylazine were not as prolonged as that of detomidine.
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          Optimizing colonic distention for multi-detector row CT colonography: effect of hyoscine butylbromide and rectal balloon catheter.

          To investigate the effects of hyoscine butylbromide and an inflatable rectal balloon catheter on luminal distention during computed tomographic (CT) colonography. One hundred thirty-six subjects undergoing CT colonography were randomized to receive either 20 mg or 40 mg of hyoscine butylbromide or no spasmolytic. Subjects were also independently randomized to undergo CT colonography with an inflatable rectal balloon catheter or a standard thin rectal tube. Multi-detector row CT colonography was performed with patients in prone and supine positions, with colonic segmental distention assessed by a single observer with a four-point scale. A simple assessment of whether distention was adequate for clinical interpretation was also made, and the effect of hyoscine butylbromide and catheter use was examined by using multivariate ordered logistic regression. Administration of hyoscine butylbromide was associated with significantly improved cecal (P =.05), ascending (P =.001), and transverse (P <.001) colonic distention when patients were supine and improved ascending (P <.001) and descending (P <.001) colonic distention when patients were prone. Compared with control subjects, patients given a spasmolytic had odds of 6.49 for clinically adequate distention throughout all colonic segments (P =.001). There was no incremental advantage with use of a 40-mg dose. In contrast, rectal balloon catheter use was not significantly associated with improved distention. Hyoscine butylbromide improves colonic distention during CT colonography and should be routinely administered where it is available. Use of a thin rectal tube for insufflation is adequate. Copyright RSNA, 2003
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Equine Veterinary Journal
            Wiley
            04251644
            August 2011
            August 25 2011
            : 43
            :
            : 117-122
            10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00400.x
            © 2011

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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