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      Characterization of cholesterol homeostasis in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase-deficient fibroblasts reveals a Niemann-Pick disease type C-like phenotype with enhanced lysosomal Ca2+ storage

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          Abstract

          Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase irreversibly cleaves S1P, thereby catalysing the ultimate step of sphingolipid degradation. We show here that embryonic fibroblasts from S1P lyase-deficient mice ( Sgpl1 −/−-MEFs), in which S1P and sphingosine accumulate, have features of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) cells. In the presence of serum, overall cholesterol content was elevated in Sgpl1 −/−-MEFs, due to upregulation of the LDL receptor and enhanced cholesterol uptake. Despite this, activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 was increased in Sgpl1 −/−-MEFs, indicating a local lack of cholesterol at the ER. Indeed, free cholesterol was retained in NPC1-containing vesicles, which is a hallmark of NPC. Furthermore, upregulation of amyloid precursor protein in Sgpl1 −/−-MEFs was mimicked by an NPC1 inhibitor in Sgpl1 +/+-MEFs and reduced by overexpression of NPC1. Lysosomal pH was not altered by S1P lyase deficiency, similar to NPC. Interestingly, lysosomal Ca 2+ content and bafilomycin A1-induced [Ca 2+] i increases were enhanced in Sgpl1 −/−-MEFs, contrary to NPC. These results show that both a primary defect in cholesterol trafficking and S1P lyase deficiency cause overlapping phenotypic alterations, and challenge the present view on the role of sphingosine in lysosomal Ca 2+ homeostasis.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling and its role in disease.

          The bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is now recognized as a critical regulator of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoporosis. S1P is produced in cells by two sphingosine kinase isoenzymes, SphK1 and SphK2. Many cells secrete S1P, which can then act in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Most of the known actions of S1P are mediated by a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors. More recently, it was shown that S1P also has important intracellular targets involved in inflammation, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. This suggests that S1P actions are much more complex than previously thought, with important ramifications for development of therapeutics. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of S1P and its roles in disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Niemann-Pick disease type C1 is a sphingosine storage disease that causes deregulation of lysosomal calcium.

            Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the acidic compartment (which we define as the late endosome and the lysosome) protein, NPC1. The function of NPC1 is unknown, but when it is dysfunctional, sphingosine, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol accumulate. We have found that NPC1-mutant cells have a large reduction in the acidic compartment calcium store compared to wild-type cells. Chelating luminal endocytic calcium in normal cells with high-affinity Rhod-dextran induced an NPC disease cellular phenotype. In a drug-induced NPC disease cellular model, sphingosine storage in the acidic compartment led to calcium depletion in these organelles, which then resulted in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipid storage in these compartments. Sphingosine storage is therefore an initiating factor in NPC1 disease pathogenesis that causes altered calcium homeostasis, leading to the secondary storage of sphingolipids and cholesterol. This unique calcium phenotype represents a new target for therapeutic intervention, as elevation of cytosolic calcium with curcumin normalized NPC1 disease cellular phenotypes and prolonged survival of the NPC1 mouse.
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              Regulation and function of AMPK in physiology and diseases

               Sang-Min Jeon (2016)
              5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that was originally identified as the key player in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Intensive research over the last decade has identified diverse molecular mechanisms and physiological conditions that regulate the AMPK activity. AMPK regulates diverse metabolic and physiological processes and is dysregulated in major chronic diseases, such as obesity, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. On the basis of its critical roles in physiology and pathology, AMPK is emerging as one of the most promising targets for both the prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular and physiological regulation of AMPK and its metabolic and physiological functions. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the versatile roles of AMPK in diabetes and cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institut für Allgemeine Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität , Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                [2 ]Institut für Klinische Chemie und Klinische Pharmakologie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn , Bonn, Germany
                [3 ]Membranbiologie und Lipidbiochemie, Einheit des Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Instituts, Universität Bonn , Bonn, Germany
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                06 March 2017
                2017
                : 7
                28262793 5337937 srep43575 10.1038/srep43575
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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