40
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    1
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Obesity in cancer survival.

      Annual review of nutrition

      Adiposity, Biomedical Research, Breast Neoplasms, complications, diagnosis, mortality, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Male, Neoplasms, Obesity, Prognosis, Prostatic Neoplasms, Research Design

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 74

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.

          White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Furthermore, cross-talk between lymphocytes and adipocytes can lead to immune regulation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others. Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. In contrast, reduced leptin levels might predispose to increased susceptibility to infection caused by reduced T-cell responses in malnourished individuals. Altered adipokine levels have been observed in a variety of inflammatory conditions, although their pathogenic role has not been completely clarified.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Targeting the mTOR signaling network for cancer therapy.

            The serine-threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a major role in the regulation of protein translation, cell growth, and metabolism. Alterations of the mTOR signaling pathway are common in cancer, and thus mTOR is being actively pursued as a therapeutic target. Rapamycin and its analogs (rapalogs) have proven effective as anticancer agents in a broad range of preclinical models. Clinical trials using rapalogs have demonstrated important clinical benefits in several cancer types; however, objective response rates achieved with single-agent therapy have been modest. Rapalogs may be more effective in combination with other anticancer agents, including chemotherapy and targeted therapies. It is increasingly apparent that the mTOR signaling network is quite complex, and rapamycin treatment leads to different signaling responses in different cell types. A better understanding of mTOR signaling, the mechanism of action of rapamycin, and the identification of biomarkers of response will lead to more optimal targeting of this pathway for cancer therapy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives.

              Body mass index, as an approximation of body adiposity, is associated with increased risk of several common and less common malignancies in a sex- and site-specific manner. These findings implicate sex- and cancer site-specific biological mechanisms underpinning these associations, and it is unlikely that there is a "one system fits all" mechanism. Three main candidate systems have been proposed-insulin and the insulin-like growth factor-I axis, sex steroids, and adipokines-but there are shortfalls to these hypotheses. In this review, three novel candidate mechanisms are proposed: obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and migrating adipose stromal cells. While public health policies aimed at curbing the underlying causes of the obesity epidemic are being implemented, there is a parallel need to better understand the biological processes linking obesity and cancer as a prerequisite to the development of new approaches to prevention and treatment.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                22540252
                3807693
                10.1146/annurev-nutr-071811-150713

                Comments

                Comment on this article