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      The Links between Microbiome and Uremic Toxins in Acute Kidney Injury: Beyond Gut Feeling—A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          The last years have brought an abundance of data on the existence of a gut-kidney axis and the importance of microbiome in kidney injury. Data on kidney-gut crosstalk suggest the possibility that microbiota alter renal inflammation; we therefore aimed to answer questions about the role of microbiome and gut-derived toxins in acute kidney injury. PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to October 10, 2020 for relevant studies with an additional search performed on ClinicalTrials.gov. We identified 33 eligible articles and one ongoing trial (21 original studies and 12 reviews/commentaries), which were included in this systematic review. Experimental studies prove the existence of a kidney-gut axis, focusing on the role of gut-derived uremic toxins and providing concepts that modification of the microbiota composition may result in better AKI outcomes. Small interventional studies in animal models and in humans show promising results, therefore, microbiome-targeted therapy for AKI treatment might be a promising possibility.

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          Most cited references61

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          A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing.

          To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
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            Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.

            An expert panel was convened in October 2013 by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to discuss the field of probiotics. It is now 13 years since the definition of probiotics and 12 years after guidelines were published for regulators, scientists and industry by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the WHO (FAO/WHO). The FAO/WHO definition of a probiotic--"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host"--was reinforced as relevant and sufficiently accommodating for current and anticipated applications. However, inconsistencies between the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation Report and the FAO/WHO Guidelines were clarified to take into account advances in science and applications. A more precise use of the term 'probiotic' will be useful to guide clinicians and consumers in differentiating the diverse products on the market. This document represents the conclusions of the ISAPP consensus meeting on the appropriate use and scope of the term probiotic.
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              Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk

              Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; P<0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P<0.001), as well as in lower-risk subgroups. The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                11 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 12
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]2nd Department of Nephrology and Hypertension with Dialysis Unit, Medical University of Białystok, 15-276 Białystok, Poland; nmasalska1@ 123456wp.pl (N.S.); katarzyna.kakareko@ 123456umb.edu.pl (K.K.); edyta.zbroch@ 123456umb.edu.pl (E.Z.); tomasz.hryszko@ 123456umb.edu.pl (T.H.)
                [2 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, 15-276 Białystok, Poland; mariusz.rosolowski@ 123456umb.edu.pl
                Author notes
                Article
                toxins-12-00788
                10.3390/toxins12120788
                7764335
                33322362
                d3c52234-b4b9-4de1-b980-d33ad922f4cf
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine
                acute kidney injury,microbiota,uremia middle molecule toxins
                Molecular medicine
                acute kidney injury, microbiota, uremia middle molecule toxins

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