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      Syndepositional processes in the pigmentation of oceanic red beds: evidence from the Basque–Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

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          Abstract

          Oceanic red beds (ORBs) are present in Upper Cretaceous and Danian deep-marine deposits in the Basque–Cantabrian Basin of northern Spain. The presence and regularity of the succession of marl–limestone couplets is exceptional based on the macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical evidence collected. Five types of marl–limestone couplets are identified based on the colour, and a high maximum sedimentation rate (3.6 cm ka –1 ) is noted. The oxidizing activity of deep, cold-water masses is indicated by the oxygen isotope signal in the lower–upper Maastrichtian and Danian sections and the presence of the boreal inoceramid Spyridoceramus tegulatus. In theory, the variation in colour from grey to greenish-yellow, purple and pink up to red tones correlates with the Fe 2+/(Fe 2++Fe 3+) ratio. It is interpreted as the possible palaeoenvironmental transit of particles that sediment out slowly in oxic environments when they circulate through cooler, oxidizing water masses. The colour is considered to be a depositional feature, and hematite, detected by X-ray diffraction, is the main staining agent, without discarding the possible redistribution of previous oxyhydroxides passing to hematite as a final product. The cell filling of the foraminifer shells does not incorporate appreciable amounts of Fe and Mg during diagenesis. Bacterial activity is detected using scanning electron microscopy images, both in the coccolith debris and in the detrital micas, although there is uncertainty as to its importance in the staining process.

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          Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events

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            Cretaceous anoxic events: from continents to oceans

            H. Jenkyns (1980)
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              The Organic Complexation of Iron in the Marine Environment: A Review

              Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for marine organisms, and it is now well established that low Fe availability controls phytoplankton productivity, community structure, and ecosystem functioning in vast regions of the global ocean. The biogeochemical cycle of Fe involves complex interactions between lithogenic inputs (atmospheric, continental, or hydrothermal), dissolution, precipitation, scavenging, biological uptake, remineralization, and sedimentation processes. Each of these aspects of Fe biogeochemical cycling is likely influenced by organic Fe-binding ligands, which complex more than 99% of dissolved Fe. In this review we consider recent advances in our knowledge of Fe complexation in the marine environment and their implications for the biogeochemistry of Fe in the ocean. We also highlight the importance of constraining the dissolved Fe concentration value used in interpreting voltammetric titration data for the determination of Fe speciation. Within the published Fe speciation data, there appear to be important temporal and spatial variations in Fe-binding ligand concentrations and their conditional stability constants in the marine environment. Excess ligand concentrations, particularly in the truly soluble size fraction, seem to be consistently higher in the upper water column, and especially in Fe-limited, but productive, waters. Evidence is accumulating for an association of Fe with both small, well-defined ligands, such as siderophores, as well as with larger, macromolecular complexes like humic substances, exopolymeric substances, and transparent exopolymers. The diverse size spectrum and chemical nature of Fe ligand complexes corresponds to a change in kinetic inertness which will have a consequent impact on biological availability. However, much work is still to be done in coupling voltammetry, mass spectrometry techniques, and process studies to better characterize the nature and cycling of Fe-binding ligands in the marine environment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Geological Magazine
                Geol. Mag.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0016-7568
                1469-5081
                September 2021
                April 13 2021
                September 2021
                : 158
                : 9
                : 1683-1703
                Article
                10.1017/S0016756821000248
                d3ce8f50-57ee-4489-9e37-c64f2e677363
                © 2021

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

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