Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the crosstalk between organs in the body and vast majority of studies were devoted to the interactions between the kidneys and the cardiovascular system. As of today, there is more evidence of the kidney and the central nervous system connections. Summary: Indeed, CKD and in particular dialysis therapy is linked to the increased prevalence of neurological complications, such as cerebrovascular disorders, movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and depression. Both traditional cardiovascular risk factors (such as diabetes, hypertension, and lipid disorders), nontraditional risk factors (such as uremic toxins, anemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism) may predispose CKD patients to neurological disorders. Likewise, cognitive problems occur more commonly in kidney transplant recipients, regardless of age, than in the general population, but the prevalence is still understudied. Cognitive impairment is associated with a higher risk of hospitalization, mortality, decreased quality of life, or health care costs in kidney transplant recipients. Here, we review (i) the potential clinical impact of kidney transplantation on cerebrovascular and neurological complications, (ii) evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment for kidney transplantation (iii) the potential impact of cognitive impairment on waitlisted and transplanted patients on patient care, and (iv) unmet medical needs. Key Messages: Cognitive impairment in kidney transplant recipients is an underestimated, underrecognized but clinically relevant problem. The screening for cognitive declines after kidney transplantation is not yet a routine practice. Several prospective and cross-sectional studies reported improvement across some of the assessed cognitive domains after transplantation.