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      Are Standard Dosing Regimens of Ceftriaxone Adapted for Critically Ill Patients with Augmented Creatinine Clearance?

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          ABSTRACT

          The objective of the present study was to determine whether augmented renal clearance (ARC) impacts negatively on ceftriaxone pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment in critically ill patients. Over a 9-month period, all critically ill patients treated with ceftriaxone were eligible. During the first 3 days of antimicrobial therapy, every patient underwent 24-h creatinine clearance (CL CR) measurements and therapeutic drug monitoring of unbound ceftriaxone. ARC was defined by a CL CR of ≥150 ml/min. Empirical underdosing was defined by a trough unbound ceftriaxone concentration under 2 mg/liter (percentage of the time that the concentration of the free fraction of drug remained greater than the MIC [ fT >MIC], 100%). Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was performed to determine the probability of target attainment (PTA) of different dosing regimens for various MICs and three groups of CL CR (<150, 150 to 200, and >200 ml/min). Twenty-one patients were included. The rate of empirical ceftriaxone underdosing was 62% (39/63). A CL CR of ≥150 ml/min was associated with empirical target underdosing with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.5 to 30.7; P < 0.01). Ceftriaxone PK concentrations were best described by a two-compartment model. CL CR was associated with unbound ceftriaxone clearance ( P = 0.02). In the MCS, the proportion of patients who would have failed to achieve a 100% fT >MIC was significantly higher in ARC patients for each dosage regimen (OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 2.74 to 3.19; P < 0.01). A dose of 2 g twice a day was best suited to achieve a 100% fT >MIC. When targeting a 100% fT >MIC for the less susceptible pathogens, patients with a CL CR of ≥150 ml/min remained at risk of empirical ceftriaxone underdosing. These data emphasize the need for therapeutic drug monitoring in ARC patients.

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          DALI: defining antibiotic levels in intensive care unit patients: are current β-lactam antibiotic doses sufficient for critically ill patients?

          Morbidity and mortality for critically ill patients with infections remains a global healthcare problem. We aimed to determine whether β-lactam antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients achieves concentrations associated with maximal activity and whether antibiotic concentrations affect patient outcome. This was a prospective, multinational pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study including 8 β-lactam antibiotics. Two blood samples were taken from each patient during a single dosing interval. The primary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets were free antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the pathogen at both 50% (50% f T>MIC) and 100% (100% f T>MIC) of the dosing interval. We used skewed logistic regression to describe the effect of antibiotic exposure on patient outcome. We included 384 patients (361 evaluable patients) across 68 hospitals. The median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-73) years, the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18 (IQR, 14-24), and 65% of patients were male. Of the 248 patients treated for infection, 16% did not achieve 50% f T>MIC and these patients were 32% less likely to have a positive clinical outcome (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; P = .009). Positive clinical outcome was associated with increasing 50% f T>MIC and 100% f T>MIC ratios (OR, 1.02 and 1.56, respectively; P < .03), with significant interaction with sickness severity status. Infected critically ill patients may have adverse outcomes as a result of inadeqaute antibiotic exposure; a paradigm change to more personalized antibiotic dosing may be necessary to improve outcomes for these most seriously ill patients.
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            Evaluation of area under the inhibitory curve (AUIC) and time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) as predictors of outcome for cefepime and ceftazidime in serious bacterial infections.

            The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the predicted pharmacodynamic parameters 24-h area under the inhibitory curve (AUIC=area under the concentration-time curve for 24h of dosing/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC0-24/MIC) and time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with bacteraemia and sepsis treated with cefepime or ceftazidime. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were derived for 76 of 107 patients enrolled in two prospective, randomised, clinical trials comparing cefepime with ceftazidime for the treatment of sepsis with bacteraemia, lower respiratory tract infection or complicated urinary tract infection. The relationships between the pharmacodynamic parameters and outcomes were examined. Whilst no significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between cefepime and ceftazidime, there were significant differences in the pharmacodynamic analysis. Patients with an AUIC> or =250 had significantly greater clinical cure (79% vs. 33%; P=0.002) and bacteriological eradication (96% vs. 44%; P MIC of 100% had significantly greater clinical cure (82% vs. 33%; P=0.002) and bacteriological eradication (97% vs. 44%; P MIC of MIC was <100%.
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              Subtherapeutic initial β-lactam concentrations in select critically ill patients: association between augmented renal clearance and low trough drug concentrations.

              β-Lactams are routinely used as empirical therapy in critical illness, with extended concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the infecting organism required for effective treatment. Changes in renal function in this setting can significantly impact the probability of achieving such targets. Analysis was made of trough plasma drug concentrations obtained via therapeutic drug monitoring, compared with renal function, in critically ill patients receiving empirical β-lactam therapy. Drug concentrations were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and corrected for protein binding. Therapeutic levels were defined as greater than or equal to MIC and greater than or equal to four times MIC (maximum bacterial eradication), respectively. Renal function was assessed by means of an 8-h creatinine clearance (CLCR). Fifty-two concurrent trough concentrations and CLCR measures were used in analysis. Piperacillin was the most frequent β-lactam prescribed (48%), whereas empirical cover and Staphylococcus species were the most common indications for therapy (62%). Most patients were mechanically ventilated on the day of study (85%), although only 25% were receiving vasopressors. In only 58% (n = 30) was the trough drug concentration greater than or equal to MIC, falling to 31% (n = 16) when using four times MIC as the target. CLCR values ≥ 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 were associated with trough concentrations less than MIC in 82% (P < .001) and less than four times MIC in 72% (P < .001). CLCR remained a significant predictor of subtherapeutic concentrations in multivariate analysis. Elevated CLCR appears to be an important predictor of subtherapeutic β-lactam concentrations and suggests an important role in identifying such patients in the ICU.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
                Antimicrob Agents Chemother
                American Society for Microbiology
                0066-4804
                1098-6596
                March 2019
                February 26 2019
                January 02 2019
                : 63
                : 3
                Article
                10.1128/AAC.02134-18
                © 2019
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