Larvae of the common raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, are known causes of visceral larva migrans and CNS disease in animals and human beings. In the present experiments we examined the ability of B. procyonis to cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) in subhuman primates, as an indication of its possible ocular zoonotic importance. Squirrel monkeys given 5,000 or 10,000 infective B. procyonis eggs per os and cynomolgus monkeys given 20,000 eggs had clinical and histologic evidence of OLM, beginning 7 days after inoculation. Clinically, multifocal retinal hemorrhages, white spots, chorioretinitis, inflammatory tracks, vascular sheathing, diffuse retinal degeneration, and motile intraretinal larvae were seen. Histologically, primarily subretinal larvae caused varying degrees of retinal disruption, degeneration and necrosis, retinitis, vasculitis, and perivascular sheathing, primarily with eosinophils. Larvae were also present in choroidal granulomas. It was concluded that B. procyonis larvae have marked ability to produce OLM in subhuman primates following oral infection and should be considered as a possible etiology in human ocular disease.