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      The Third American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity : Executive Summary 2017

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          Abstract

          The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's Third Practice Advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity is an interim update from its 2010 advisory. The advisory focuses on new information regarding the mechanisms of lipid resuscitation, updated frequency estimates, the preventative role of ultrasound guidance, changes to case presentation patterns, and limited information related to local infiltration anesthesia and liposomal bupivacaine. In addition to emerging information, the advisory updates recommendations pertaining to prevention, recognition, and treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. WHAT'S NEW IN THIS UPDATE?: This interim update summarizes recent scientific findings that have enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to lipid emulsion reversal of LAST, including rapid partitioning, direct inotropy, and post-conditioning. Since the previous practice advisory, epidemiological data have emerged that suggest a lower frequency of LAST as reported by single institutions and some registries, nevertheless a considerable number of events still occur within the general community. Contemporary case reports suggest a trend toward delayed presentation, which may mirror the increased use of ultrasound guidance (fewer intravascular injections), local infiltration techniques (slower systemic uptake), and continuous local anesthetic infusions. Small patient size and sarcopenia are additional factors that increase potential risk for LAST. An increasing number of reported events occur outside of the traditional hospital setting and involve non-anesthesiologists.

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          Most cited references 45

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          ASRA practice advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity.

          The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity assimilates and summarizes current knowledge regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this potentially fatal complication. It offers evidence-based and/or expert opinion-based recommendations for all physicians and advanced practitioners who routinely administer local anesthetics in potentially toxic doses. The advisory does not address issues related to local anesthetic-related neurotoxicity, allergy, or methemoglobinemia. Recommendations are based primarily on animal and human experimental trials, case series, and case reports. When objective evidence is lacking or incomplete, recommendations are supplemented by expert opinion from the Practice Advisory Panel plus input from other experts, medical specialty groups, and open forum. Specific recommendations are offered for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity.
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            Ultrasound guidance compared with electrical neurostimulation for peripheral nerve block: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

            Despite the growing interest in the use of ultrasound (US) imaging to guide performance of regional anaesthetic procedures such as peripheral nerve blocks, controversy still exists as to whether US is superior to previously developed nerve localization techniques such as the use of a peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS). We sought to clarify this issue by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials that have compared these two methods of nerve localization. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases and also the reference lists of relevant publications for eligible studies. A total of 13 studies met our criteria and were included for analysis. Studies were rated for methodological quality by two reviewers. Data from these studies were abstracted and synthesized using a meta-analysis. Blocks performed using US guidance were more likely to be successful [risk ratio (RR) for block failure 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.66, P<0.001], took less time to perform (mean 1 min less to perform with US, 95% CI 0.4-1.7 min, P=0.003), had faster onset (29% shorter onset time, 95% CI 45-12%, P=0.001), and had longer duration (mean difference 25% longer, 95% CI 12-38%, P<0.001) than those performed with PNS guidance. US guidance also decreased the risk of vascular puncture during block performance (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.47, P=0.001). US improves efficacy of peripheral nerve block compared with techniques that utilize PNS for nerve localization. Larger studies are needed to determine whether or not the use of US can decrease the number of complications such as nerve injury or systemic local anaesthetic toxicity.
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              Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN): a multi-institutional study of the use and incidence of complications of pediatric regional anesthesia.

              Regional anesthesia is increasingly used in pediatric patients to provide postoperative analgesia and to supplement intraoperative anesthesia. The Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network was formed to obtain highly audited data on practice patterns and complications and to facilitate collaborative research in regional anesthetic techniques in infants and children. We constructed a centralized database to collect detailed prospective data on all regional anesthetics performed by anesthesiologists at the participating centers. Data were uploaded via a secure Internet connection to a central server. Data were rigorously audited for accuracy and errors were corrected. All anesthetic records were scrutinized to ensure that every block that was performed was captured in the database. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were tracked until their resolution. Blocks were categorized by type and as single-injection or catheter (continuous) blocks. A total of 14,917 regional blocks, performed on 13,725 patients, were accrued from April 1, 2007 through March 31, 2010. There were no deaths or complications with sequelae lasting >3 months (95% CI 0-2:10,000). Single-injection blocks had fewer adverse events than continuous blocks, although the most frequent events (33% of all events) in the latter group were catheter-related problems. Ninety-five percent of blocks were placed while patients were under general anesthesia. Single-injection caudal blocks were the most frequently performed (40%), but peripheral nerve blocks were also frequently used (35%), possibly driven by the widespread use of ultrasound (83% of upper extremity and 69% of lower extremity blocks). Regional anesthesia in children as commonly performed in the United States has a very low rate of complications, comparable to that seen in the large multicenter European studies. Ultrasound may be increasing the use of peripheral nerve blocks. Multicenter collaborative networks such as the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network can facilitate the collection of detailed prospective data for research and quality improvement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
                Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1098-7339
                2018
                February 2018
                : 43
                : 2
                : 113-123
                Article
                10.1097/AAP.0000000000000720
                29356773
                © 2018

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