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      Seasonal Variation of Retinal Detachment in Lebanon

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          Background: The literature remains controversial regarding seasonal variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: In this retrospective chart review, seasonal variation of RRD was examined based on the records of 211 consecutive patients operated for idiopathic RRD in one referral medical center over a 13-year period. Results: The number of eyes with RRD recorded per season was 46 in autumn, 46 in winter, 62 in spring and 57 in summer. There was a significant seasonal variation (p < 0.05) with an increase in RRD in the warm seasons (spring and summer) compared to the cold seasons (winter and autumn; 56 vs. 44%). Right eyes were more likely to be affected than left eyes (54 vs. 46%), and cases presented with a significantly younger age at onset in the warm than in the cold seasons (47 vs. 54 years, p = 0.007). A literature review of 8,533 cases including the present case series established further the seasonal variation of RRD (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is convincing evidence for a seasonal variation of RRD in Lebanon and in the literature. This is likely to be related to sun exposure and outdoor activities in the warm seasons.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Characteristics of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Taiwan.

          To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Taiwan. The case-control study was based on retrospective chart review of hospital patients treated for primary RRD from 1995 to 2001, inclusively. The preoperative fundus findings and refractive status were collected for each patient. Controls were selected from a nationwide survey of visual impairment in the adult population during the same period. Risk factors for RRD were analysed by logistic regression. A total of 1032 RRD cases and 3537 controls were enrolled for the study. A pronounced bipeak pattern was evident in the age distribution for primary RRD in the third and sixth decades of life. Atrophic hole with lattice degeneration was preferential to younger (20-30 years) and highly myopic individuals (-7.4+/-5 D), whereas the flap tear tended to occur in middle-aged individuals (50-60 years) and those with moderate myopia (-4.1+/-5 D). The odds ratio for primary RRD with myopia, male gender, and older age (>40 years) were 1.33/D, 2.15, and 1.69, respectively. Myopia is an important RRD risk factor for young Taiwanese. The increasing prevalence of myopia has predisposed the young population to RRD.
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            Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a familial aggregation study.

            To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Medical Centre Nijmegen in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Data on family composition, history of RRD, and presence of other risk factors in siblings and offspring were collected by means of a questionnaire. Diagnosis of RRD was confirmed by evaluation of medical records. One hundred eighty-one patients (89.2% of those eligible) and 408 controls (88.5% of invited controls) with 1090 and 2345 relatives, respectively, were included in the analysis. Thirteen familial RRDs (1.2%) were diagnosed in 10 case probands and 9 RRDs (0.4%) in 8 control probands. Siblings and offspring of cases had a higher incidence of RRD independent of age, sex, and myopia. The cumulative lifetime risk of RRD was 7.7% for relatives of cases and 3.0% for relatives of controls, yielding a risk ratio of 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.2). Familial occurrence of RRD is a risk factor for RRD. Genetic factors apart from myopia may explain the increased familial risk.
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              Seasonal variations in retinal detachment in Northern Finland and Novosibirsk


                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                April 2009
                02 April 2009
                : 41
                : 3
                : 170-174
                Departments of aOphthalmology and bEpidemiology and Population Health, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; cDepartment of Human and Molecular Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
                210443 Ophthalmic Res 2009;41:170–174
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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