An infertility evaluation should be performed if a couple has not achieved conception after one year of unprotected intercourse. An evaluation should be performed earlier if male or female infertility risk factors exist and if the couple questions its fertility potential. The initial screening of the male should include a reproductive history and a physical examination performed by a urologist or a specialist in male fertility and two semen analyses. Additional procedures and testing may be used to elucidate problems discovered during the full evaluation. The minimal initial endocrine evaluation should include serum total testosterone and serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels. An endocrine evaluation should be performed if sperm concentration is abnormally low, sexual function is impaired, and when other clinical findings suggest a specific endocrinopathy. A postejaculatory urinalysis should be performed if ejaculate volume is less than 1 mL, except in patients with bilateral vasal agenesis or possible hypogonadism. With a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation, specific management should be considered before advising assisted reproductive technology. Scrotal ultrasonography is indicated when physical examination of the scrotum is difficult or inadequate, or when a testicular mass is suspected. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is indicated in patients who are azoospermic or have a low ejaculate volume. Specialized testing of semen is not required for routine diagnosis of male infertility. However, some tests may be useful for a few patients to identify a male factor contributing to unexplained infertility, or to select therapy (e.g., assisted reproductive technology). Before performing intracytoplasmic sperm injection, karyotyping and Y-chromosome analysis should be offered to men who have nonobstructive azoospermia and severe oligospermia. Genetic testing for gene mutations of the ABCC7 (ex-CFTR) gene should be offered to male and female partners before proceeding with treatments that use the sperm of men with congenital bilateral absence of the vasa deferentia or congenital unilateral abnormality of the seminal tract. Genetic counseling may be offered when a genetic abnormality is suspected in the male or female partner, and it should be provided when a genetic abnormality is detected. Genetic testing in the female partner, when non symptomatic, should only be advised by a physician from a multidisciplinary team registered by the ministry of health. Evaluation by testis biopsy and deferentography should be performed by a urologist or an andrologist registered for sperm retrieval.