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      Designing and standardizing a questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian adults with cardiovascular diseases about oral health

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND

          Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in Iran. Moreover, periodontal diseases are very common in our country. In this study, we have designed a standardized questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Iranian adult patients with cardiovascular diseases about oral health.

          METHODS

          For designing and standardizing a self-administered questionnaire, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study on 51 cases with periodontal complaints. A dentist carried out the physical examination to determine oral health indicators. Twelve experts and ten lay people of the target population answered questions about validity. Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used in the analysis.

          RESULTS

          The cases of this pilot study were middle aged, with moderate financial and health status, but low oral health and educational level. Debris score was correlated with all other physical exam findings except decay, missing, and filled (DMF). Reliability was 0.826 according to Cronbach’s alpha score. Face validity was higher than 80%. Content validities of the whole of the questionnaire were 85.98% for clarity, 78.05% for relevancy, 85.16% for simplicity, and 82.32% for consistency of each question with the question set. Factor analysis showed that 15 components explain 74% of the total variance.

          CONCLUSION

          This questionnaire is culturally adjusted and appropriate for our community, valid and reliable, and sufficiently estimates the variance of the oral health status. It can be used as a standard tool in further studies in adult population of the Iranian middle aged patients with low level of education and moderate socioeconomic status.

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          Most cited references21

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          Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of hygiene among school children in Angolela, Ethiopia.

          Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries. This study evaluated the KAP of hygiene among rural school children in Ethiopia and assessed the extent to which proper knowledge of hygiene was associated with personal hygiene characteristics. This cross-sectional study was comprised of 669 students who were interviewed by trained staff Participants were in grades 1-6 at Angolela Primary School, located in rural Ethiopia. Data consisted of hygiene and hand washing practices, knowledge about sanitation, personal hygiene characteristics, and presence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Results. Approximately 52% of students were classified as having adequate knowledge of proper hygiene. Most students reported hand washing before meals (99.0%), but only 36.2% reported using soap. Although 76.7% of students reported that washing hands after defecation was important, only 14.8% reported actually following this practice. Students with adequate knowledge of proper hygiene were more likely to have clean clothes (AOR 1.62, CI 1.14-2.29) and to have a lower risk of parasitic infection (AOR 0.78, CI 0.56-1.09) although statistical significance was not achieved for the latter Study findings underscore the need for more hand washing and hygiene education in schools; and provide objective evidence that may guide the development of comprehensive health and hygiene intervention programs in rural Ethiopian schools. Successful implementation of these programs is likely to substantially attenuate the transmissible disease burden borne by school children in rural settings.
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              Oral health indicators poorly predict coronary heart disease deaths.

              Several earlier studies have suggested that development of coronary heart disease (CHD) is causally related to oral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between oral health indicators and CHD deaths. Out of a nationally representative sample, 6527 men and women aged 30-69 years participated in the health examination with a dental check. Detailed oral health data included caries, periodontal and dental plaque status, presence of remaining teeth, and various types of dentures. Over a mean 12-year follow-up, persons dying of CHD were older and more often smoked, had hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and only a basic education compared with other persons. In univariate analyses, several oral health indicators were associated with CHD deaths. Adjustment for the established CHD risk factors reduced all these associations to statistical non-significance. The associations between oral health indicators and CHD are mostly explained by confounding factors, particularly those relating to health behavior.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA
                ARYA Atherosclerosis
                Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
                1735-3955
                2251-6638
                November 2013
                : 9
                : 6
                : 350-356
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Assistant Professor, Dental Implants Research Center AND Department of Periodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Associate Professor, Dental Implants Research Center AND Department of Periodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Assistant Professor, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Assistant Professor, Imam Hossein Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [6 ]Assistant Professor, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute AND Department of Community Oral Health, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [7 ]Dentist, Tehran, Iran
                [8 ]PhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences AND Center for Educational Research in Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Ali Kabir, Email: aikabir@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                ARYA-09-350
                3933060
                24575138
                d408d3a4-a160-4b52-abdc-e7bb014b1927
                © 2013 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center & Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Orthopedics
                questionnaires,reproducibility of results,validation studies,validity,reliability,oral health,periodontal diseases

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