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      Consensus Paper: Cerebellar Development

      1 , 2 , , 3 , 4 , 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 7 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 6 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 7 , 16 , 18 , 1 , 2 , 19 , 20 , 3 , 21 , 14 , 22 , 23 , 24
      Cerebellum (London, England)
      Springer US
      Cerebellum, Progenitors, Purkinje cells, Specification, Differentiation

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          The development of the mammalian cerebellum is orchestrated by both cell-autonomous programs and inductive environmental influences. Here, we describe the main processes of cerebellar ontogenesis, highlighting the neurogenic strategies used by developing progenitors, the genetic programs involved in cell fate specification, the progressive changes of structural organization, and some of the better-known abnormalities associated with developmental disorders of the cerebellum.

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          A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.

          The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer experimental access to CNS regions, cell classes and pathways. We illustrate the use of this atlas to derive novel insights into gene function in neural cells, and into principal steps of CNS development. The atlas, library of BAC vectors and BAC transgenic mice generated in this screen provide a rich resource that allows a broad array of investigations not previously available to the neuroscience community.
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            Patched1 regulates hedgehog signaling at the primary cilium.

            Primary cilia are essential for transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in mammals. We investigated the role of primary cilia in regulation of Patched1 (Ptc1), the receptor for Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Ptc1 localized to cilia and inhibited Smoothened (Smo) by preventing its accumulation within cilia. When Shh bound to Ptc1, Ptc1 left the cilia, leading to accumulation of Smo and activation of signaling. Thus, primary cilia sense Shh and transduce signals that play critical roles in development, carcinogenesis, and stem cell function.
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              A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system.

              Many structural features of the mammalian central nervous system can be explained by a morphogenetic mechanism that involves mechanical tension along axons, dendrites and glial processes. In the cerebral cortex, for example, tension along axons in the white matter can explain how and why the cortex folds in a characteristic species-specific pattern. In the cerebellum, tension along parallel fibres can explain why the cortex is highly elongated but folded like an accordion. By keeping the aggregate length of axonal and dendritic wiring low, tension should contribute to the compactness of neural circuitry throughout the adult brain.

                Author and article information

                +39 011 6706630 , ketty.leto@unito.it
                Cerebellum (London, England)
                Springer US (New York )
                6 October 2015
                6 October 2015
                : 15
                : 6
                : 789-828
                [1 ]Department of Neuroscience Rita Levi Montalcini, University of Turin, via Cherasco 15, 10026 Turin, Italy
                [2 ]Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri-Ottolenghi, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Torino Italy
                [3 ]Departments of Pathology & Immunology and Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute of Texas Children’s Hospital, 1250 Moursund Street, Suite 1325, Houston, TX 77030 USA
                [4 ]Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PT UK
                [5 ]Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4114 MRB III, Nashville, TN 37232 USA
                [6 ]Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems and Program in Neuroscience, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605-2324 USA
                [7 ]Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle, WA USA
                [8 ]Department of Pediatrics, Genetics Division, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA
                [9 ]Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Univ Paris 06, Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, France, 75005 Paris, France
                [10 ]Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS, UMR8246, INSERM U1130, Neuroscience Paris Seine, France, 75005 Paris, France
                [11 ]Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 USA
                [12 ]Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502 Japan
                [13 ]Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065 USA
                [14 ]Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan
                [15 ]Department of Integrative Physiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 Japan
                [16 ]Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT UK
                [17 ]Department Human Anatomy, IMIB-Arrixaca, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
                [18 ]Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
                [19 ]Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Anatomisches Institut, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, Germany
                [20 ]Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 USA
                [21 ]Institut de la Vision, UPMC Université de Paris 06, Paris, 75012 France
                [22 ]Center for Neuropathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany
                [23 ]MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King’s College London, London, UK
                [24 ]Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4NI AB Canada
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

                cerebellum,progenitors,purkinje cells,specification,differentiation
                cerebellum, progenitors, purkinje cells, specification, differentiation


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