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      Pathogenesis of Renal Failure in Rhabdomyolysis: The Role of Myoglobin

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      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Heme, Crush syndrome, Lipid peroxidation, Redox cycling, Iron

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          Abstract

          Rhabdomyolysis causes renal dysfunction associated with renal vasoconstriction, tubular toxicity and luminal obstruction. There is now accumulating evidence that renal injury, caused by lipid peroxidation, is important in the pathogenesis of renal failure. The proposed central role of free iron in this process is examined. Current data have shown that the heme center of myoglobin can initiate lipid peroxidation and renal injury without invoking release of free iron, and this process is due to redox cycling of the heme group from ferrous to ferric and to ferryl oxidation states. Alkaline conditions prevent myoglobin-induced lipid peroxidation by stabilizing the reactive ferryl myoglobin complex. This review explores the evidence for each of these mechanisms.

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          Most cited references 6

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          A causative role for redox cycling of myoglobin and its inhibition by alkalinization in the pathogenesis and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure.

          Muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis) and subsequent deposition of myoglobin in the kidney causes renal vasoconstriction and renal failure. We tested the hypothesis that myoglobin induces oxidant injury to the kidney and the formation of F2-isoprostanes, potent renal vasoconstrictors formed during lipid peroxidation. In low density lipoprotein (LDL), myoglobin induced a 30-fold increase in the formation of F2-isoprostanes by a mechanism involving redox cycling between ferric and ferryl forms of myoglobin. In an animal model of rhabdomyolysis, urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes increased by 7.3-fold compared with controls. Administration of alkali, a treatment for rhabdomyolysis, improved renal function and significantly reduced the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes by approximately 80%. EPR and UV spectroscopy demonstrated that myoglobin was deposited in the kidneys as the redox competent ferric myoglobin and that it's concentration was not decreased by alkalinization. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the reactivity of ferryl myoglobin, which is responsible for inducing lipid peroxidation, is markedly attenuated at alkaline pH. This was further supported by demonstrating that myoglobin-induced oxidation of LDL was inhibited at alkaline pH. These data strongly support a causative role for oxidative injury in the renal failure of rhabdomyolysis and suggest that the protective effect of alkalinization may be attributed to inhibition of myoglobin-induced lipid peroxidation.
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            Increased lipid peroxidation in patients with rhabdomyolysis.

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              Myoglobin-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide dependent arachidonic acid peroxidation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2000
                April 2000
                15 March 2000
                : 8
                : 2
                : 72-76
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
                Article
                20651 Exp Nephrol 2000;8:72–76
                10.1159/000020651
                10729745
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 29, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20651
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Iron, Redox cycling, Lipid peroxidation, Crush syndrome, Heme

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