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      Exosomal lncRNA-p21 levels may help to distinguish prostate cancer from benign disease

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          Exosomes are membranous vesicles containing various biomolecules including lncRNAs which are involved in cellular communication and are secreted from many cells including cancer cells. In our study, investigated the exosomal GAS5 and lincRNA-p21 lncRNA levels in urine samples from 30 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and 49 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Quantification of lncRNA molecules was performed by real-time PCR. We observed a significant difference in the exosomal lincRNA-p21 levels between PCa and BPH patients whereas the GAS5 levels did not reveal a difference. Our data suggest that the discriminative potential of exosomal lincRNA-p21 levels may help to improve the diagnostic prediction of the malignant state for patients with PCa.

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          Most cited references 29

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          The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

          A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p < 0.001). The AUA symptom index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols.
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            Proteomic profiling of exosomes: current perspectives.

            Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types in vitro. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are also found in vivo in body fluids such as blood, urine, amniotic fluid, malignant ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, and breast milk. While the biological function of exosomes is still unclear, they can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation and in trans signaling to neighboring cells. Exosome-like vesicles identified in Drosophila (referred to as argosomes) may be potential vehicles for the spread of morphogens in epithelia. The advent of current MS-based proteomic technologies has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular composition of exosomes. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic proteins, it is becoming increasingly apparent that exosomes harbor distinct subsets of proteins that may be linked to cell-type associated functions. The secretion of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the transport and propagation of infectious cargo such as prions and retroviruses such as HIV suggest their participation in pathological situations. Interestingly, the recent observation that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be transferred to another cell, and be functional in that new environment, is an exciting new development in the unraveling exosome saga. The present review aims to summarize the physical properties that define exosomes as specific cell-type secreted membrane vesicles.
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              Genes specifically expressed at growth arrest of mammalian cells.

              A subtraction cDNA library enriched for RNA sequences preferentially expressed in growth-arrested cells was prepared. Six cDNA clones were identified, varying in abundance from 2% to 0.0002% of the library and in size from 0.8 to 10 kb. The corresponding mRNAs are downregulated with different kinetics upon induction of growth by serum. The kinetics of induction after serum starvation and density-dependent inhibition of two of these growth-arrest-specific (gas) genes were investigated in more detail. Two cell lines transformed by viral onc genes did not express the two gas genes. The full-length cDNA for one gene has been sequenced and the protein product preliminarily characterized by in vitro translation.

                Author and article information

                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                06 May 2015
                : 6
                1Department of Basic Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University , Istanbul, Turkey
                2Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Istanbul Hospital, Başkent University , Istanbul, Turkey
                3Department of Urology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University , Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mohammad Faghihi, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA

                Reviewed by: Georges St. Laurent, St. Laurent Institute, USA; Gregory C. Sartor, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA; Mohammadreza Hajjari, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

                *Correspondence: Nejat Dalay, Department of Basic Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University, Millet Cad., Istanbul 34093, Turkey, ndalay@ 123456yahoo.com

                This article was submitted to RNA, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics.

                Copyright © 2015 Işın, Uysaler, Özgür, Köseoglu, Şanlı, Yücel, Gezer and Dalay.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 5, Words: 3808
                Original Research


                exosome, prostate cancer, lncrna, benign prostatic hyperplasia, non-invasive diagnosis


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