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      A new species of stygobitic snail in the genus Antrorbis Hershler & Thompson, 1990 (Gastropoda, Cochliopidae) from the Appalachian Valley and Ridge of eastern Tennessee, USA

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          A new species of cave snail ( Littorinimorpha : Cochliopidae ) in the genus Antrorbis is described from the dark zone of two caves in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge province in eastern Tennessee, United States. The Tennessee Cavesnail, Antrorbis tennesseensis Perez, Shoobs, Gladstone, & Niemiller, sp. nov. is distinguished from its only known congener, Antrorbis breweri , by the absence of raised tubercles on its finely spirally striate protoconch, and its unique radular formula. Moreover, A. tennesseensis is genetically distinct from A. breweri based on substantial divergence at the mitochondrial CO1 locus. This is the first cavesnail to be described from the Appalachian Valley and Ridge (AVR) physiographic province in the state of Tennessee, which previously represented a substantial gap in the distribution of stygobitic (i.e., aquatic, subterranean-obligate) gastropods.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order in hominoidea.

          A maximum likelihood method for inferring evolutionary trees from DNA sequence data was developed by Felsenstein (1981). In evaluating the extent to which the maximum likelihood tree is a significantly better representation of the true tree, it is important to estimate the variance of the difference between log likelihood of different tree topologies. Bootstrap resampling can be used for this purpose (Hasegawa et al. 1988; Hasegawa and Kishino 1989), but it imposes a great computation burden. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method for estimating the variance by expressing it explicitly. The method was applied to DNA sequence data from primates in order to evaluate the maximum likelihood branching order among Hominoidea. It was shown that, although the orangutan is convincingly placed as an outgroup of a human and African apes clade, the branching order among human, chimpanzee, and gorilla cannot be determined confidently from the DNA sequence data presently available when the evolutionary rate constancy is not assumed.
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            The Global Decline of Nonmarine Mollusks

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              An index of substitution saturation and its application.

              We introduce a new index to measure substitution saturation in a set of aligned nucleotide sequences. The index is based on the notion of entropy in information theory. We derive the critical values of the index based on computer simulation with different sequence lengths, different number of OTUs and different topologies. The critical value enables researchers to quickly judge whether a set of aligned sequences is useful in phylogenetics. We illustrate the index by applying it to an analysis of the aligned sequences of the elongation factor-1alpha gene originally used to resolve the deep phylogeny of major arthropod groups. The method has been implemented in DAMBE.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                10 December 2019
                : 898
                : 103-120
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
                [2 ] Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
                [3 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
                [4 ] Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
                [5 ] Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
                [6 ] Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                [7 ] Department of Malacology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                [8 ] Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Matthew L. Niemiller ( cavemander17@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: E. Neubert

                Article
                46917
                10.3897/zookeys.898.46917
                6926427
                Nicholas S. Gladstone, Kathryn E. Perez, Evelyn B. Pieper, Evin T. Carter, Katherine E. Dooley, Nathaniel F. Shoobs, Annette S. Engel, Matthew L. Niemiller

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Cave Conservancy Foundation
                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Cochliopidae
                Gastropoda
                Incertae Sedis
                Invertebrata
                Mollusca
                Evolutionary Biology
                Genetics
                Phylogeny
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Americas
                Arkansas and Tennessee
                North America
                Southern USA
                USA and Canada

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