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      Dynamics of haemocytes from Pseudosuccinea columella circulating infected by Fasciola hepatica Translated title: Dinâmica de hemócitos circulantes de Pseudosuccinea columella infectados por Fasciola hepatica

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          Abstract

          Abstract The lymnaeids are important in the epidemiology of Fasciola hepatica, a neglected and endemic zoonosis. The interaction between the internal defense system of Pseudosuccinea columella and F. hepatica has been little studied. In the present study the effect of infection by F. hepatica on P. columella circulating haemocytes was investigated. Changes in the average number of total circulating haemocytes have been observed at 30 minutes post-infection and 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 50 days post-infection (dpi). Miracidia were observed head-foot and mantle at 30 minutes post-infection. Miracidia/Sporocysts in the mantle skirt 1 dpi, and fully formed sporocysts were observed in the head-foot at 7 dpi. Rediae became evident at 10 dpi and were located between the haemocoel and the muscles from 14 dpi; 50 dpi, the rediae in the digestive gland contained cercariae. The statistical analysis of the total haemocytes of P. columella infected by F. hepatica showed significant differences on the 30 minutes post-infection and 1, 14, 21, and 28 dpi in comparison to uninfected molluscs (0 dpi). Therefore, the interference observed on the internal defence system of P. columella may have direct association with the development of F. hepatica.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Os limnaeideos são importantes na epidemiologia de Fasciola hepatica, uma zoonose negligenciada e endêmica. A interação entre o sistema interno de defesa de Pseudosuccinea columella e F. hepatica tem sido pouco estudada. No presente estudo, investigou-se o efeito da infecção por F. hepatica nos hemócitos circulantes de P. columella. Alterações no número médio de hemócitos circulantes foram observadas aos 30 minutos e 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 e 50 dias após a infecção (dpi). Miracídios foram observados na região cefalopodal e manto aos 30 minutos após a infecção. Miracídio/esporocistos foram observados no colar do manto ao 1 dpi, e esporocistos totalmente formados na região cefalopodal aos 7 dpi. Rédias tornam-se evidentes aos 10 dpi entre a hemocele e músculos a partir de 14 dpi; e rédias com cercárias próximas a glândula digestiva aos 50 dpi. A análise estatística dos hemócitos totais de P. columella infectados por F. hepatica demonstrou diferenças significativas nos 30 minutos pós-infecção e 1, 14, 21 e 28 dpi em comparação aos moluscos não infectados (0 dpi). Portanto, a interferência observada no sistema de defesa interna de P. columella pode ter associação direta com o desenvolvimento de F. hepatica.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Excretory-secretory products of larval Fasciola hepatica investigated using a two-dimensional proteomic approach.

          So far, very few secreted proteins from trematodes have been characterized, although their role in the mechanisms that allow the parasite to escape host's immune response have been largely documented. Here we performed a proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins from the intra-molluscan larval stages of Fasciola hepatica. We identified two antioxidative enzymes: a Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and a thioredoxin (TRX) previously characterized in ES products from adult stages. These results support the importance of parasite detoxication of reactive oxygen species in invertebrate hosts, and raise the question of the possible conservation of major immune evasion effectors across trematode developmental life-stages.
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            New insight in lymnaeid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) as intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Belgium and Luxembourg

            Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed.
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              Redial generations of Fasciola hepatica: a review.

              An update on the redial generations of Fasciola hepatica was carried out to highlight the different developmental patterns of rediae, the effects of some factors on these generations, and the consequences of such developmental patterns on cercarial productivity. The development of generations is dependent on the behaviour of the first mother redia of the first generation. If this redia remains alive throughout snail infection, it produces most second-generation rediae. In contrast, if it dies during the first weeks, daughter redia formation is ensured by a substitute redia (the second mother redia of the first generation, or the first redia of the second generation). Environmental and biotic factors do not modify the succession of redial generations, but most act by limiting the numbers of rediae, either in all generations, or in the second and/or third generations. An abnormal development of rediae reduces the number of cercariae and most are formed by the second cohort of the first generation. By contrast, most cercariae are produced by the first cohort of the second generation when redial development is normal. The mother rediae described by previous authors might correspond to the first generation and the second cohort of the second generation, while daughter rediae would be the second cohort of the second generation and the first cohort of the third generation. Under certain circumstances, daughter redia formation is ensured by the first two mother rediae or all first-generation rediae, thus demonstrating that the first mother redia is not the only larva to ensure daughter redia formation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbpv
                Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária
                Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária (Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil )
                0103-846X
                1984-2961
                November 2017
                : 26
                : 4
                : 411-418
                Affiliations
                Ouro Preto Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Ouro Preto Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais orgdiv1Instituto de Ciências Biológicas orgdiv2Departamento de Parasitologia Brazil
                Article
                S1984-29612017000400411
                10.1590/s1984-29612017057

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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