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      The technological and economic prospects for CO2 utilization and removal

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          What would it take for renewably powered electrosynthesis to displace petrochemical processes?

          Electrocatalytic transformation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water into chemical feedstocks offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions by shifting the chemical industry away from fossil fuel dependence. We provide a technoeconomic and carbon emission analysis of possible products, offering targets that would need to be met for economically compelling industrial implementation to be achieved. We also provide a comparison of the projected costs and CO 2 emissions across electrocatalytic, biocatalytic, and fossil fuel–derived production of chemical feedstocks. We find that for electrosynthesis to become competitive with fossil fuel–derived feedstocks, electrical-to-chemical conversion efficiencies need to reach at least 60%, and renewable electricity prices need to fall below 4 cents per kilowatt-hour. We discuss the possibility of combining electro- and biocatalytic processes, using sequential upgrading of CO 2 as a representative case. We describe the technical challenges and economic barriers to marketable electrosynthesized chemicals.
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            Beyond fossil fuel–driven nitrogen transformations

            Nitrogen is fundamental to all of life and to many industrial processes. Nitrogen in its various oxidation states comprises the global nitrogen cycle, with the change between forms being redox reactions involving electrons and protons. The interchange of nitrogen oxidation states constitutes some of the most important industrial processes, with the energy for these processes being provided largely by fossil fuel. A key goal of research in the field of nitrogen chemistry is to minimize the use of fossil fuels by developing more efficient heterogeneous, homogeneous, or biological catalysts, or by inventing new energy-efficient processes that rely on catalysts. These approaches, as well as the challenges involved, are discussed in this review. This review article reports on the current state of the field of nitrogen activation chemistry and discusses future directions.
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              The teraton challenge. A review of fixation and transformation of carbon dioxide

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                November 2019
                November 6 2019
                November 2019
                : 575
                : 7781
                : 87-97
                Article
                10.1038/s41586-019-1681-6
                31695213
                d43d98f0-a831-4735-8f98-a95eac25805e
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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