Faunal inventories in ferruginous caves from an area belonging to the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado phytophysiognomy), on the eastern margin of the Serra do Espinhaço Plateau, in southeastern Brazil, have revealed the occurrence of land flatworms. Herein, a flatworm sampled in such subterranean environment is described as a new genus and species of the Neotropical subfamily Geoplaninae, Difroehlichia elenae gen. nov., sp. nov. The new genus shows rare features within Geoplaninae, namely sub-cylindrical body, poorly developed sub-epidermal musculature and a narrow creeping sole. Some features, such as a small body and a broad sensory margin in the anterior region of the body, as well as the fact that the holotype showed signs of recent copula, may indicate an adaptation to the subterranean environment, probably representing a troglophile. Difroehlichia elenae is characterized by an almost homogeneous dark brown pigmentation over dorsal surface and body margins, a short cylindrical pharynx, and a tubular and unforked intrabulbar prostatic vesicle, among other features. The holotype shows a secondary male copulatory organ located immediately behind the primary one, both communicating with the female atrium and gonopore canal. Since the species seems to have low abundance and restricted distribution and its type-locality is affected by mining activities, major concern arises regarding its conservation.