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      Application of Indocyanine Green Videoangiography in Aneurysm Surgery: Evidence, Techniques, Practical Tips

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          Establishing blood vessel patency in neurovascular surgery is an essential component in treating cerebrovascular disorders. Given the difficulty in confirming complete obliteration of the aneurysm sac, ICG videoangiography has emerged as an intraoperative tool that provides neurosurgeons immediate feedback on the status of vessel flow, allowing for surgical modifications to be made without delay. ICG initially emerged as a tool for assessing hepatic, cardiac, and retinovascular function. It is an inert compound with a high affinity for plasma proteins and fluorescence properties making it the ideal candidate for assessment of vessel patency in neurovascular procedures. Requiring only a bolus peripheral vein injection and integration of a near-infrared imaging device into the surgical microscope, ICG can be visualized without disrupting operating room workflow or the surgical field. Quick response time, high-spatial resolution, and low complication rates are features of ICG videoangiography that prove advantageous when compared to the gold standard intra- and postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite this, ICG is not without limitations, specifically in the setting of atherosclerotic vessels, giant, and complex aneurysms. Additionally, there are instances where DSA may prove superior in detecting vessel stenosis and outflow obstruction, prompting the recommendation of ICG as an adjunct to, rather than complete replacement of DSA. In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of the biochemical properties and historical origins of ICG viedoangiography in addition to discussing its current application in aneurysm surgery.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow.

          We report our initial clinical experience with a new method for intraoperative blood flow assessment. The purposes of the study were to assess the use of indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography in neurovascular cases, to assess the handling and image quality, to compare the findings with postoperative angiographic results, and to evaluate the clinical value of the method in a preliminary feasibility study. Fourteen patients with aneurysms (n = 12) or spinal (n = 1) or intracranial (n = 1) dural fistulae were included. Before and/or after aneurysm or dural fistula occlusion, ICG (25 mg) was injected intravenously. A near-infrared laser excitation light source (lambda = 780 nm) illuminated the operating field. The intravascular fluorescence of ICG (maximal lambda = 835 nm) was recorded by a nonintensified video camera, with optical filtering to block ambient and laser light for collection of only ICG-induced fluorescence. A total of 21 investigations were performed for 14 patients. For the 17 successful ICG video angiographic investigations, image quality and resolution were excellent, allowing intraoperative real-time assessment of the cerebral circulation. ICG angiographic results could be divided into arterial, capillary, and venous phases, comparable to those observed with digital subtraction angiography. In all cases, the postoperative angiographic results corresponded to the intraoperative ICG video angiographic findings. In three cases, the information provided by intraoperative ICG angiography significantly changed the surgical procedure. ICG video angiography is simple and provides real-time information on the patency of arterial and venous vessels of all relevant diameters, including small and perforating arteries (<0.5 mm), and the visible aneurysm sac. It may be a useful adjunct to improve the quality of neurovascular procedures and to document the intraoperative vascular flow.
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            Light-induced decomposition of indocyanine green.

            To investigate the light-induced decomposition of indocyanine green (ICG) and to test the cytotoxicity of light-induced ICG decomposition products. ICG in solution was irradiated with laser light, solar light, or surgical endolight. The light-induced decomposition of ICG was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Porcine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were incubated with the light-induced decomposition products of ICG, and cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion assay. Independent of the light source used, singlet oxygen (photodynamic type 2 reaction) is generated by ICG leading to dioxetanes by [2+2]-cycloaddition of singlet oxygen. These dioxetanes thermally decompose into several carbonyl compounds. The decomposition products were identified by mass spectrometry. The decomposition of ICG was inhibited by adding sodium azide, a quencher of singlet oxygen. Incubation with ICG decomposition products significantly reduced the viability of RPE cells in contrast to control cells. ICG is decomposed by light within a self-sensitized photo oxidation. The decomposition products reduce the viability of RPE cells in vitro. The toxic effects of decomposed ICG should be further investigated under in vivo conditions.
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              Indocyanine green angiography: a perspective on use in the clinical setting.

              To review the history of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and to present a personal perspective on its use in the clinical setting today. Perspective with literature review and opinions based on personal experience. To acquire views from international retinal physicians experienced with the technique on uses in their facilities and to compare them to the author's personal standards. The author and contributing retinal physicians had surprisingly similar views for most, but not all, applications for ICG angiography use in the clinical setting. ICG angiography is recommended for a few highly selective chorioretinal disorders, including certain forms of neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration, other neovascular maculopathies, chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal hemangiomas, and posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Surg
                Front Surg
                Front. Surg.
                Frontiers in Surgery
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 June 2019
                : 6
                Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System , Charlottesville, VA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Eberval Figueiredo, University of São Paulo, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Jorge Marcelo Mura, Instituto de Neurocirugía, Chile; Hiroki Toda, Fukui Red Cross Hospital, Japan

                *Correspondence: M. Yashar S. Kalani kalani@

                This article was submitted to Neurosurgery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Surgery

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Copyright © 2019 Norat, Soldozy, Elsarrag, Sokolowski, Yaǧmurlu, Park, Tvrdik and Kalani.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 7, Words: 4838


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