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      A tyrosine-sulfated peptide based on the N terminus of CCR5 interacts with a CD4-enhanced epitope of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and inhibits HIV-1 entry.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry

      Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antigens, CD4, metabolism, Antiviral Agents, pharmacology, Binding Sites, Cells, Cultured, Dogs, HIV Envelope Protein gp120, HIV-1, drug effects, physiology, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Receptors, CCR5, chemistry, Structure-Activity Relationship, Sulfates, Tyrosine

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          The sequential association of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4 and a seven-transmembrane segment coreceptor such as CCR5 or CXCR4 initiates entry of the virus into its target cell. The N terminus of CCR5, which contains several sulfated tyrosines, plays a critical role in the CD4-dependent association of gp120 with CCR5 and in viral entry. Here we demonstrate that a tyrosine-sulfated peptide based on the N terminus of CCR5, but not its unsulfated analogue, inhibits infection of macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells by CCR5-dependent, but not CXCR4-dependent, HIV-1 isolates. The sulfated peptide also inhibited the association of CCR5-expressing cells with gp120-soluble CD4 complexes and, less efficiently, with MIP-1alpha. Moreover, this peptide inhibited the precipitation of gp120 by 48d and 23e antibodies, which recognize CD4-inducible gp120 epitopes, but not by several other antibodies that recognize proximal epitopes. The ability of the sulfated peptide to block 48d association with gp120 was dependent in part on seven tropism-determining residues in the third variable (V3) and fourth conserved (C4) domains of gp120. These data underscore the important role of the N-terminal sulfate moieties of CCR5 in the entry of R5 HIV-1 isolates and localize a critical contact between gp120 and CCR5.

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