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      Mirror Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation: Current Perspectives

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          In contrast to varied therapy approaches, mirror therapy (MT) can be used even in completely plegic stroke survivors, as it uses visual stimuli for producing a desired response in the affected limb. MT has been studied to have effects not just on motor impairments but also on sensations, visuospatial neglect, and pain after stroke. This paper attempts to systematically review and present the current perspectives on mirror therapy and its application in stroke rehabilitation, and dosage, feasibility and acceptability in stroke rehabilitation. An electronic database search across Google, PubMed, Web of Science, etc., generated 3871 results. After screening them based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 28 studies in this review. The data collected were divided on the basis of application in stroke rehabilitation, modes of intervention delivery, and types of control and outcome assessment. We found that most studies intervened for upper limb motor impairments post stroke. Studies were equally distributed between intervention in chronic and acute phases post stroke with therapy durations lasting between 1 and 8 weeks. MT showed definitive motor and sensory improvements although the extent of improvements in sensory impairments and hemineglect is limited. MT proves to be an effective and feasible approach to rehabilitate post-stroke survivors in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases of stroke, although its long-term effects and impact on activities of daily living need to be analysed extensively.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Recovery of upper extremity function in stroke patients: the Copenhagen Stroke Study.

          Time course and degree of recovery of upper extremity (UE) function after stroke and the influence of initial UE paresis were studied prospectively in a community-based population of 421 consecutive stroke patients admitted acutely during a 1-year period. UE function was assessed weekly, using the Barthel Index subscores for feeding and grooming. UE paresis was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale subscores for hand and arm. The best possible UE function was achieved by 80% of the patients within 3 weeks after stroke onset and by 95% within 9 weeks; in patients with mild UE paresis, function was achieved within 3 and 6 weeks, respectively, and in patients with severe UE paresis within 6 and 11 weeks, respectively. Full UE function was achieved by 79% of patients with mild UE paresis and only by 18% of patients with severe UE paresis. A valid prognosis of UE function can be made within 3 and 6 weeks in patients with mild and severe UE paresis, respectively. Further recovery of UE function should not be expected after 6 and 11 weeks respectively, in these groups of patients.
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            Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review of the literature.

            To collect and integrate existing data concerning the occurrence, extent, time course, and prognostic determinants of motor recovery after stroke using a systematic methodologic approach. A computer-aided search in bibliographic databases was done of longitudinal cohort studies, original prognostic studies, and randomized controlled trials published in the period 1966 to November 2001, which was expanded by references from retrieved articles and narrative reviews. After a preliminary screening, internal, external, and statistical validity was assessed by a priori methodologic criteria, with special emphasis on the internal validity. The studies finally selected were discussed, based on the quantitative analysis of the outcome measures and prognostic determinants. Meta-analysis was pursued, but was not possible because of substantial heterogeneity. The search resulted in 174 potentially relevant studies, of which 80 passed the preliminary screening and were subjected to further methodologic assessment; 14 studies were finally selected. Approximately 65% of the hospitalized stroke survivors with initial motor deficits of the lower extremity showed some degree of motor recovery. In the case of paralysis, complete motor recovery occurred in less than 15% of the patients, both for the upper and lower extremities. Hospitalized patients with small lacunar strokes showed relatively good motor recovery. The recovery period in patients with severe stroke was twice as long as in patients with mild stroke. The initial grade of paresis was the most important predictor for motor recovery (odds ratios [OR], >4). Objective analysis of the motor pathways by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) showed even higher ORs (ORs, >20). Our knowledge of motor recovery after stroke in more accurate, quantitative, and qualitive terms is still limited. Nevertheless, our data synthesis and quantitative analysis comprises data from many methodologically robust studies, which may support the clinician in the management of stroke patients. With respect to early prognosis of motor recovery, our review confirms clinical experience that the initial grade of paresis (as measured on admission in the hospital) is the most important predictor, although the accuracy of prediction rapidly improves during the first few days after stroke. Initial paralysis implies the worst prognosis for subsequent motor recovery. Remarkably, the prognostic accuracy of MEPs appears much higher than that of clinical examination for different subgroups of patients. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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              The mirror neuron system.

              Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                07 February 2020
                : 16
                : 75-85
                [1 ]College of Physiotherapy, Christian Medical College & Hospital Ludhiana , Ludhiana, Punjab, India
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Stroke Brno, International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne´s University Hospital , Brno, Czech Republic
                [3 ]Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College & Hospital Ludhiana , Ludhiana, Punjab, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jeyaraj D Pandian Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College & Hospital , Ludhiana, Punjab141008, IndiaTel +91 9915784750 Email jeyarajpandian@hotmail.com
                © 2020 Gandhi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 77, Pages: 11


                pain, stroke, rehabilitation, motor, sensory, hemineglect, unilateral neglect, mirror therapy


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