NUSAP1, which is a microtubule-associated protein involved in mitosis, plays essential roles in diverse biological processes, especially in cancer biology. In this study, NUSAP1 was found to be overexpressed in GBM tissues in a grade-dependent manner compared with normal brain tissues. NUSAP1 was also highly expressed in GBM patients, dead patients, and GBM cells. In addition, NUSAP1 was found to participate in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA damage in GBM cells. Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) are a primary sensor of DNA damage, and ATR is also a promising target in cancer therapy. Here, we found that NUSAP1 positively regulated the expression of ATR. Mechanistically, NUSAP1 suppressed the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of ATR. The SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) domain is a common motif of many SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E3 ligases, and this domain is involved in substrate recognition and ligase activity. This study further demonstrated that the SAP domain of NUSAP1 promoted the sumoylation of ATR, and thereby antagonized the ubiquitination of ATR. These results suggest that NUSAP1 stabilizes ATR by sumoylation. Moreover, NUSAP1 potentiated chemotherapeutic resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) and doxorubicin (DOX) through its SAP domain. Overall, this study indicates that NUSAP1 is a promising therapeutic target in GBM.